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We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Delete your data Request to partially or fully delete your data. If you want Staffordshire County Council to delete all of your personal data, or only some of it, you can let Staffordshire County Council know via Rightly in a deletion request. Staffordshire County Council then has 30 days to reply, by law. The personal data of every Welsh resident who tested positive for Covid-19 was accidentally uploaded to a public server. It meant the details of 18,105 Welsh people were searchable by anyone using the site. Public Health Wales said the data breach was the result of “individual human error”. Staffordshire University is located in Beaconside, Stafford and falls under the local authority of Staffordshire. The type of establishment is higher education institutions. We organise UK open data by location and signpost the source. American Staffordshire Terrier: Breeding planned august 2014: 6.1 years ago: American Staffordshire Terrier: JCHPL JCHMNE,JUNIOR CLUB WINNER MOJITO Ast Team > 6.7 years ago: American Staffordshire Terrier: Barn Hunting! 7.1 years ago: American Staffordshire Terrier: Replies: 7.2 years ago: American Staffordshire Terrier: STCA lo: 7.3 years ago ... 138 Data Centre jobs in Staffordshire on totaljobs. Get instant job matches for companies hiring now for Data Centre jobs in Staffordshire like Management, Administration, Mail and more. We’ll get you noticed. Coronavirus data for Staffordshire is available to view on the below dashboard which includes daily cases for the county as well as statistics for individual districts and boroughs. Staffordshire's seven day infection rate per 100,000 of the population is also displayed along with how this compares regionally and nationally. Staffordshire. 2011 Census Data for all census areas in England and Wales. Data is rapidly becoming the most valuable commodity in the 21st century. Study big data analytics and become the figurehead that collects, analyses and interprets data on a large scale, giving huge companies the information they need to make accurate and profitable decisions ... Students of Staffordshire University enter into a contract with ... About Big Data at Staffordshire University. Research-informed teaching that has direct value to industry, commerce and to you as an IT industry professional. You will develop a critical perspective of Big Data and be able to apply this to a range of scenarios

Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

2020.09.17 20:07 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. "Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs."

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are. Here's a proposal for you: Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link. It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger." According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail. The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration. The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail. If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet. More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
submitted by Rumored17 to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 23:29 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs.

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are.
Here's a proposal for you:
Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link.
It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger."
According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail.
The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration.
The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail.
If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet.
More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
submitted by Rumored17 to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.08.13 16:00 Trzyszcz I need some help with finding me a best match for my first dog [Breeds]

Hi all,
I am a 20yo student and I am trying to find a dog for me. I've always wanted a dog but my mom never let me have one. She's grew up in countryside and she thought that dogs are urinating everywhere, are stinky and generally shouldn't be kept in a house. I spent many years to debunk most of her weird charges to the point where she let me have one. I have very little life experience with dogs and I can't really be sure about which breed would be happiest/ least troublesome in my house so I am making this post


Introduction
1) Will this be your first dog? If not, what experience do you have owning/training dogs?
Currently I have a "Covid" dog - I took it from my grandparents since they are too afraid to get out of house. That's a 13 year old Yorkie with some old dog problems (he has bad hearing and vision, he has "leaks" some eating disorders etc.) so I do not know wheather experience I gained with him is less or more valuable. I've always wanted a dog, so I've read some books how to handle and train them and some about breeds, to find a good match
2) Do you have a preference for rescuing a dog vs. going through a reputable breeder?
I wish to start with puppy. I would check rescue dogs and then reputable breeder.
3) Describe your ideal dog.
Will be a calm, funny, affectionate dog that will be my friend. Willing to protect me, able to stay in my house for quite a while. Likes to cuddle and to lay with me on a couch. Faithful companion for casual walks
4) What breeds or types of dogs are you interested in and why?
I like big dog breeds but my girlfriend says that I am "all dog person" since I find dogs great animals in generall and even my temporary, little dumb Yorkie . Big/Huge dogs would also give me a big comfort during walks. There have been few burglarys in my area and even one of my neighbours bought neapolitan mastiff. I thought about Bullmastiffs, Irish wolfhounds, Great danes, Broholmers, Staffordshire bull terrier and many more alike to those mentioned (emphasis on "thought")
5) What sorts of things would you like to train your dog to do?
Standard stuff, basic obedience, maybe some tricks, maybe not to beg for food at least around guests, approaching me at command
6) Do you want to compete with your dog in a sport (e.g. agility, obedience, rally) or use your dog for a form of work (e.g. hunting, herding, livestock guarding)? If so, how much experience do you have with this work/sport?
Nahh
Care Commitments
7) How long do you want to devote to training, playing with, or otherwise interacting with your dog each day?
Active interacting like training and walks/plays should be 2-3 hours but including chilling together or being close to each other would add few more hours
8) How long can you exercise your dog each day, on average? What sorts of exercise are you planning to give your dog regularly and does that include using a dog park?
I could walk my dog for 1-1,5 hours daily and those could be active walks where I thow him ball etc. or just walking around nearby park/ my neighbourhood with no hurry
9) How much regular brushing are you willing to do? Are you open to trimming hair, cleaning ears, or doing other grooming at home? If not, would you be willing to pay a professional to do it regularly?
I could brush my dog 2 times a week but I wouldn't mind brushing him less often. I will wash my dog, clean his ears and cut his claws. Trimming hair I would leave to proffesionals but I wouldn't want to trim him regularly (once in a 2 months). Shorthair breeds would be better
Personal Preferences
10) What size dog are you looking for?
Medium Large, large or very large
11) How much shedding, barking, and slobber can you handle?
I need a dog that doesn't shed that much since my mom is pedantic. Barking is not a big problem but I don't want a really vocal dog either. Slobbering is not a problem for me
12) How important is being able to let your dog off-leash in an unfenced area?
Not really
Dog Personality and Behavior
13) Do you want a snuggly dog or one that prefers some personal space?
I would love cuddles and connection but I don't need a 24/7 lap warmer
14) Would you prefer a dog that wants to do its own thing or one that’s more eager-to-please?
Unsure, maybe eager to please.
15) How would you prefer your dog to respond to someone knocking on the door or entering your yard? How would you prefer your dog to greet strangers or visitors?
I wish for him to be alerted but not aggressive and to be calmer after my command
16) Are you willing to manage a dog that is aggressive to other dogs?
I could work with such dog but as I said, this will technically be my first dog. I will attend puppy schools with my dog though
17) Are there any other behaviors you can’t deal with or want to avoid?
I want a well behaved dog, one that I could take out in public (I can work with dogs with some aggression torwards other dogs). I don't want it to have some seperation problems where he would cry and bark alone at home.
Lifestyle
18) How often and how long will the dog be left alone?
I'm going to be the only person taking care of him in my home. Depending on my time table my dog will on average be alone for 3-5 hours but with bad luck it could be 8 hours around once a week and sometimes in working days he would always have someone at home. 20-25 hours weekly
19) What are the dog-related preferences of other people in the house and what will be their involvement in caring for the dog?
As I said I would be the only one taking care of him. I could get someone to walk the dog or sth when I can't be there or take it to vet but that's it
20) Do you have other pets or are you planning on having other pets? What breed or type of animal are they?
No
21) Will the dog be interacting with children regularly?
No
22) Do you rent or plan to rent in the future? If applicable, what breed or weight restrictions are on your current lease?
I am not planing to rent anything
23) What city or country do you live in and are you aware of any laws banning certain breeds?
I live in Warsaw (Poland). I know that I need special request to own: Anatolian karabash , Akbash dog, American pitbull, Ca de bou, American bulldog, Dogo argentino, Canary mastiff, Tosa inu, Rottweiler, Caucasian shepherd dog and moscow watchdog
24) What is the average temperature of a typical summer and winter day where you live?
Data says that July's (hottest month in here) average temperature is 20C(68F) and Coldest month in winter there are -4C(25F). However this week we had 28 deg Celsius (82F)
Additional Information and Questions
25) Please provide any additional information you feel may be relevant.
I am willing to take my dog to a puppy school. I live in a House with a small yard. I am in a good financial situation. All breeds I mentioned before are just options I considered but confilcting opinions scared me away from further reaserch, so don't eat me alive for mentioning some bad matches - That's why I need your help guys ;) . I want my dog to be happy and not to pose any danger. I am male, 20 years old, 180 cm(5'11) (might be worth mentioning)
26) Feel free to ask any questions below.
;) Thank you
submitted by Trzyszcz to dogs [link] [comments]


2020.08.02 02:54 sba117 IVDD vs. Arthritis?

Looking for clarification. Vet told us yesterday that our dog has IVDD (and gave us a handout on proper treatment on IVDD) after taking x-rays. She explained that it was "like arthritis of the spine" and showed the "bridge" on his x-ray which she described as a calcification. She gave us prednisone and gabapentin and recommended "bed rest" for 2 weeks, noting that gentle leash walks are okay.
I read the IVDD handout she provided which seemed to contradict the recommendations/descriptions she gave (e.g. we only have x-ray data which from what I understand isn't typically used to diagnose IVDD?). IVDD sounds like it requires strict crate rest rather than just "bed rest" and doesn't usually allow for any walks. I am not attempting to discredit her at all -- I very much respect our vet, just wonder if there was an accidental handout given or mispoken word on the end of a Friday work day. The report she wrote and gave to us states "a bridge of arthritis along the sacral spine" and "lumbosacral stenosis," but did not list IVDD anywhere.
Any thoughts or feedback would be much appreciated! I also emailed requesting a phone call on Monday to clarify. Here's some pictures of him!

submitted by sba117 to AskVet [link] [comments]


2020.07.31 07:55 yurkoko [Breed] Recommendations appreciated!

Hello community, I would appreciate if you could recommend medium to medium-large dogs breeds that would be happy in apartment dwelling. All the google recommendations are around small sized dogs, but I just want something bigger.
I live in Seattle by myself in 2 bedroom apartment with a large balcony. I am 30 years old. I work from home full time as data analyst. I like hiking and backpacking, getting recharged in mountains, as well as doing some urban gardening. Thank you!
(Sorry, I've been trying to fix numbered list but failed).
Introduction
1) Will this be your first dog? If not, what experience do you have owning/training dogs?
2) Do you have a preference for rescuing a dog vs. going through a reputable breeder?
3) Describe your ideal dog.
4) What breeds or types of dogs are you interested in and why?
5) What sorts of things would you like to train your dog to do?
6) Do you want to compete with your dog in a sport (e.g. agility, obedience, rally) or use your dog for a form of work (e.g. hunting, herding, livestock guarding)? If so, how much experience do you have with this work/sport?
Care Commitments
7) How long do you want to devote to training, playing with, or otherwise interacting with your dog each day?
8) How long can you exercise your dog each day, on average? What sorts of exercise are you planning to give your dog regularly and does that include using a dog park?
9) How much regular brushing are you willing to do? Are you open to trimming hair, cleaning ears, or doing other grooming at home? If not, would you be willing to pay a professional to do it regularly?
Personal Preferences
10) What size dog are you looking for?
11) How much shedding, barking, and slobber can you handle?
12) How important is being able to let your dog off-leash in an unfenced area?
Dog Personality and Behavior
13) Do you want a snuggly dog or one that prefers some personal space?
14) Would you prefer a dog that wants to do its own thing or one that’s more eager-to-please?
15) How would you prefer your dog to respond to someone knocking on the door or entering your yard? How would you prefer your dog to greet strangers or visitors?
16) Are you willing to manage a dog that is aggressive to other dogs?
17) Are there any other behaviors you can’t deal with or want to avoid?
Lifestyle
18) How often and how long will the dog be left alone?
19) What are the dog-related preferences of other people in the house and what will be their involvement in caring for the dog?
20) Do you have other pets or are you planning on having other pets? What breed or type of animal are they?
21) Will the dog be interacting with children regularly?
22) Do you rent or plan to rent in the future? If applicable, what breed or weight restrictions are on your current lease?
23) What city or country do you live in and are you aware of any laws banning certain breeds?
24) What is the average temperature of a typical summer and winter day where you live?
submitted by yurkoko to dogs [link] [comments]


2020.07.17 18:16 _c9s_ Areas without Coronavirus spread (17th July update)

Here's an update to the post I made last week looking at the end of the spectrum we're not talking about so much - where we're not seeing many cases of Coronavirus spreading in the UK.
Orkney and the Western Isles are the only areas that haven't seen any cases in the past month now, with the other areas that were getting close last week mostly having a low number of cases crop up over the week.

Here's a big table of the date of the latest case reported in each local authority/health board, and how many cases they've had in the past two weeks:
Latest reported case Local authority/health board Cases 3 July to 17 Jul
2020-06-15 Orkney 0
2020-06-15 Western Isles 0
2020-06-18 North Devon 0
2020-06-21 Borders 0
2020-06-26 Barrow-in-Furness 0
2020-06-26 Great Yarmouth 0
2020-06-26 West Devon 0
2020-06-27 Torfaen 0
2020-07-01 Mendip 0
2020-07-03 Mid Suffolk 1
2020-07-03 Scarborough 1
2020-07-03 Wyre Forest 1
2020-07-04 Breckland 2
2020-07-04 Stevenage 2
2020-07-05 Forest of Dean 2
2020-07-05 Ryedale 2
2020-07-06 Copeland 4
2020-07-06 Tewkesbury 3
2020-07-07 Caerphilly 6
2020-07-07 Ceredigion 4
2020-07-07 Cotswold 2
2020-07-07 Hastings 1
2020-07-07 Maldon 1
2020-07-07 Mid Ulster -4
2020-07-07 Richmond upon Thames 3
2020-07-08 Cambridge 6
2020-07-08 Harlow 2
2020-07-08 North Hertfordshire 4
2020-07-08 South Norfolk 1
2020-07-08 South Somerset 1
2020-07-09 Adur 3
2020-07-09 Bath and North East Somerset 2
2020-07-09 Blaenau Gwent 4
2020-07-09 Cannock Chase 15
2020-07-09 Gosport 5
2020-07-09 Hart 3
2020-07-09 Isle of Wight 1
2020-07-09 King's Lynn and West Norfolk 1
2020-07-09 Malvern Hills 5
2020-07-09 Melton 8
2020-07-09 Mole Valley 1
2020-07-09 North East Derbyshire 1
2020-07-09 North Lincolnshire 7
2020-07-09 Ribble Valley 7
2020-07-09 Runnymede 7
2020-07-09 Rushmoor 1
2020-07-09 Sedgemoor 4
2020-07-09 South Kesteven 6
2020-07-09 Stratford-on-Avon 8
2020-07-09 Stroud 1
2020-07-09 Tandridge 5
2020-07-09 Torridge 3
2020-07-10 Amber Valley 7
2020-07-10 Bridgend 6
2020-07-10 Chiltern 5
2020-07-10 Dorset 8
2020-07-10 Elmbridge 9
2020-07-10 Halton 6
2020-07-10 Lisburn and Castlereagh 5
2020-07-10 Mid Devon 2
2020-07-10 New Forest 2
2020-07-10 Newport 3
2020-07-10 North Norfolk 1
2020-07-10 North Somerset 4
2020-07-10 South Staffordshire 3
2020-07-10 Southampton 18
2020-07-10 Three Rivers 7
2020-07-10 Winchester 2
2020-07-11 Crawley 8
2020-07-11 Croydon 14
2020-07-11 Dumfries and Galloway 7
2020-07-11 East Hampshire 2
2020-07-11 East Riding of Yorkshire 11
2020-07-11 Highland 2
2020-07-11 Northumberland 9
2020-07-11 Rutland 3
2020-07-11 Tendring 5
2020-07-11 Test Valley 5
2020-07-11 Wokingham 12
2020-07-12 Blackpool 15
2020-07-12 Bromsgrove 4
2020-07-12 Castle Point 8
2020-07-12 Exeter 5
2020-07-12 Harborough 17
2020-07-12 Horsham 5
2020-07-12 Ipswich 6
2020-07-12 Milton Keynes 10
2020-07-12 Newcastle upon Tyne 12
2020-07-12 Rother 8
2020-07-12 Staffordshire Moorlands 6
2020-07-12 Tamworth 6
2020-07-12 Thurrock 13
2020-07-13 Aylesbury Vale 18
2020-07-13 Babergh 1
2020-07-13 Bolsover 2
2020-07-13 Brentwood 9
2020-07-13 Broxtowe 6
2020-07-13 Chorley 3
2020-07-13 Craven 3
2020-07-13 Denbighshire 8
2020-07-13 East Cambridgeshire 1
2020-07-13 East Hertfordshire 4
2020-07-13 Eastleigh 3
2020-07-13 Epping Forest 4
2020-07-13 Fareham 9
2020-07-13 Guildford 4
2020-07-13 Hammersmith and Fulham 8
2020-07-13 Harrogate 11
2020-07-13 Islington 10
2020-07-13 Knowsley 9
2020-07-13 Lancaster 4
2020-07-13 Maidstone 5
2020-07-13 Merthyr Tydfil 5
2020-07-13 Merton 8
2020-07-13 Monmouthshire 3
2020-07-13 North West Leicestershire 15
2020-07-13 Norwich 6
2020-07-13 Pembrokeshire 4
2020-07-13 Plymouth 7
2020-07-13 Reigate and Banstead 5
2020-07-13 Rhondda Cynon Taf 18
2020-07-13 Shropshire 19
2020-07-13 Solihull 20
2020-07-13 Somerset West and Taunton 4
2020-07-13 South Derbyshire 5
2020-07-13 South Lakeland 2
2020-07-13 South Oxfordshire 11
2020-07-13 South Tyneside 7
2020-07-13 Spelthorne 4
2020-07-13 St. Helens 6
2020-07-13 Sunderland 12
2020-07-13 Teignbridge 5
2020-07-13 Tower Hamlets 28
2020-07-13 Tunbridge Wells 19
2020-07-13 Uttlesford 2
2020-07-13 Vale of White Horse 8
2020-07-13 Warwick 3
2020-07-13 Wellingborough 9
2020-07-13 West Oxfordshire 6
2020-07-13 West Suffolk 6
2020-07-13 Westminster 14
2020-07-13 Woking 16
2020-07-13 Worthing 8
2020-07-14 Arun 4
2020-07-14 Ashfield 8
2020-07-14 Ashford 35
2020-07-14 Basingstoke and Deane 3
2020-07-14 Bassetlaw 14
2020-07-14 Bedford 30
2020-07-14 Bexley 20
2020-07-14 Bracknell Forest 6
2020-07-14 Braintree 54
2020-07-14 Carmarthenshire 7
2020-07-14 Central Bedfordshire 28
2020-07-14 Chelmsford 9
2020-07-14 Cheltenham 4
2020-07-14 Cherwell 5
2020-07-14 Chesterfield 9
2020-07-14 Colchester 7
2020-07-14 Conwy 16
2020-07-14 Cornwall 12
2020-07-14 Darlington 4
2020-07-14 Derbyshire Dales 2
2020-07-14 Dover 21
2020-07-14 East Devon 6
2020-07-14 East Suffolk 7
2020-07-14 Enfield 16
2020-07-14 Fenland 14
2020-07-14 Gateshead 9
2020-07-14 Gedling 5
2020-07-14 Gravesham 17
2020-07-14 Hambleton 2
2020-07-14 Havant 3
2020-07-14 Hertsmere 6
2020-07-14 Isle of Anglesey 8
2020-07-14 Kingston upon Thames 9
2020-07-14 Mid Sussex 6
2020-07-14 Newark and Sherwood 7
2020-07-14 North Tyneside 7
2020-07-14 North Warwickshire 3
2020-07-14 Oxford 21
2020-07-14 Portsmouth 9
2020-07-14 Powys 7
2020-07-14 Redcar and Cleveland 4
2020-07-14 Redditch 2
2020-07-14 Richmondshire 2
2020-07-14 Rushcliffe 10
2020-07-14 Selby 6
2020-07-14 Sevenoaks 11
2020-07-14 South Hams 1
2020-07-14 South Ribble 10
2020-07-14 Southend-on-Sea 23
2020-07-14 Southwark 16
2020-07-14 Stafford 9
2020-07-14 Stockton-on-Tees 11
2020-07-14 Stoke-on-Trent 39
2020-07-14 Sutton 12
2020-07-14 Swale 10
2020-07-14 Vale of Glamorgan 11
2020-07-14 Wealden 16
2020-07-14 West Berkshire 6
2020-07-14 Wiltshire 18
2020-07-14 Wirral 22
2020-07-14 York 11
2020-07-15 Allerdale 4
2020-07-15 Ards and North Down 0
2020-07-15 Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon -2
2020-07-15 Barking and Dagenham 10
2020-07-15 Barnet 34
2020-07-15 Barnsley 45
2020-07-15 Basildon 24
2020-07-15 Boston 2
2020-07-15 Bournemouth Christchurch and Poole 11
2020-07-15 Brent 20
2020-07-15 Brighton and Hove 14
2020-07-15 Bristol City of 15
2020-07-15 Bromley 12
2020-07-15 Camden 8
2020-07-15 Canterbury 22
2020-07-15 Cardiff 14
2020-07-15 Carlisle 38
2020-07-15 Charnwood 33
2020-07-15 Cheshire West and Chester 57
2020-07-15 Chichester 4
2020-07-15 Corby 11
2020-07-15 Dacorum 15
2020-07-15 Dartford 28
2020-07-15 Daventry 8
2020-07-15 Derby 35
2020-07-15 Doncaster 49
2020-07-15 Dudley 13
2020-07-15 Ealing 19
2020-07-15 East Lindsey 8
2020-07-15 East Northamptonshire 21
2020-07-15 East Staffordshire 43
2020-07-15 Eastbourne 32
2020-07-15 Epsom and Ewell 7
2020-07-15 Erewash 6
2020-07-15 Flintshire 19
2020-07-15 Folkestone and Hythe 19
2020-07-15 Fylde 15
2020-07-15 Gloucester 4
2020-07-15 Greenwich 14
2020-07-15 Gwynedd 14
2020-07-15 Hackney 47
2020-07-15 Haringey 23
2020-07-15 Harrow 22
2020-07-15 Hartlepool 3
2020-07-15 Herefordshire County of 116
2020-07-15 High Peak 7
2020-07-15 Hillingdon 27
2020-07-15 Hinckley and Bosworth 10
2020-07-15 Hounslow 20
2020-07-15 Hyndburn 11
2020-07-15 Kensington and Chelsea 7
2020-07-15 Kettering 44
2020-07-15 Kingston upon Hull City of 10
2020-07-15 Lambeth 19
2020-07-15 Leeds 107
2020-07-15 Lewes 9
2020-07-15 Lichfield 9
2020-07-15 Liverpool 44
2020-07-15 Mansfield 1
2020-07-15 Medway 23
2020-07-15 Middlesbrough 8
2020-07-15 Neath Port Talbot 10
2020-07-15 Newcastle-under-Lyme 12
2020-07-15 Newham 24
2020-07-15 Nottingham 23
2020-07-15 Nuneaton and Bedworth 24
2020-07-15 Oadby and Wigston 33
2020-07-15 Pendle 87
2020-07-15 Peterborough 99
2020-07-15 Preston 19
2020-07-15 Reading 11
2020-07-15 Redbridge 25
2020-07-15 Rochdale 148
2020-07-15 Rochford 8
2020-07-15 Rossendale 5
2020-07-15 Rotherham 86
2020-07-15 Salford 52
2020-07-15 Sandwell 58
2020-07-15 Sheffield 124
2020-07-15 Slough 17
2020-07-15 South Bucks 3
2020-07-15 South Cambridgeshire 11
2020-07-15 South Gloucestershire 6
2020-07-15 South Holland 13
2020-07-15 St Albans 32
2020-07-15 Stockport 25
2020-07-15 Surrey Heath 5
2020-07-15 Swansea 12
2020-07-15 Tameside 32
2020-07-15 Telford and Wrekin 19
2020-07-15 Thanet 34
2020-07-15 Tonbridge and Malling 3
2020-07-15 Torbay 4
2020-07-15 Trafford 30
2020-07-15 Wakefield 131
2020-07-15 Waltham Forest 19
2020-07-15 Wandsworth 26
2020-07-15 Warrington 12
2020-07-15 Waverley 4
2020-07-15 Welwyn Hatfield 11
2020-07-15 West Lancashire 9
2020-07-15 Wigan 27
2020-07-15 Windsor and Maidenhead 11
2020-07-15 Wolverhampton 17
2020-07-15 Worcester 6
2020-07-15 Wychavon 9
2020-07-15 Wycombe 12
2020-07-15 Wyre 7
2020-07-16 Birmingham 160
2020-07-16 Blaby 31
2020-07-16 Blackburn with Darwen 139
2020-07-16 Bolton 84
2020-07-16 Bradford 373
2020-07-16 Broadland 4
2020-07-16 Broxbourne 9
2020-07-16 Burnley 14
2020-07-16 Bury 24
2020-07-16 Calderdale 74
2020-07-16 Cheshire East 32
2020-07-16 County Durham 25
2020-07-16 Coventry 27
2020-07-16 Eden 11
2020-07-16 Fermanagh and Omagh 2
2020-07-16 Havering 21
2020-07-16 Huntingdonshire 8
2020-07-16 Kirklees 237
2020-07-16 Leicester 679
2020-07-16 Lewisham 15
2020-07-16 Lincoln 7
2020-07-16 Luton 89
2020-07-16 Manchester 135
2020-07-16 Newry, Mourne and Down 15
2020-07-16 North East Lincolnshire 5
2020-07-16 North Kesteven 7
2020-07-16 Northampton 91
2020-07-16 Oldham 66
2020-07-16 Rugby 15
2020-07-16 Sefton 34
2020-07-16 South Northamptonshire 9
2020-07-16 Swindon 21
2020-07-16 Walsall 46
2020-07-16 Watford 4
2020-07-16 West Lindsey 10
2020-07-16 Wrexham 51
2020-07-17 Antrim and Newtownabbey -2
2020-07-17 Ayrshire and Arran 7
2020-07-17 Belfast 11
2020-07-17 Causeway Coast and Glens 19
2020-07-17 Derry City and Strabane 12
2020-07-17 Fife 7
2020-07-17 Forth Valley 21
2020-07-17 Grampian 10
2020-07-17 Greater Glasgow and Clyde 39
2020-07-17 Lanarkshire 17
2020-07-17 Lothian 18
2020-07-17 Mid and East Antrim 7
2020-07-17 Tayside 9

Notes for Scotland

Scotland reports data based on local health boards rather than local authorities and with the date they were reported rather than the date the swab was taken. This will result in higher numbers than elsewhere and the latest cases being slightly more recent than the rest of the UK.

Notes for NI

Some parts of NI are reporting negative cases, which is mathematically impossible. I believe is due to the authorities reporting data incorrectly and then correcting it later without updating the historical data.

Data sources

submitted by _c9s_ to CoronavirusUK [link] [comments]


2020.07.09 18:44 _c9s_ Areas where Coronavirus isn't spreading

With lots of talk about the places where cases are spiking, I thought it might be interesting to look at the other end of the spectrum - where we're not seeing any cases reported.
Below is a list of all the Local Authorities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and health boards in Scotland, the date of their most recent case, and the number of cases in the past two weeks. Sorry for the length of this post!

Derry City and Strabane is the only part of the UK that haven't seen a case in over a month, with Uttlesford (in Essex), the Scottish isles (Orkney, Western Isles), and parts of the South West (Bath, North Devon) only slightly behind with no cases in the past 3 weeks.
Living in one of those areas, it does make me quite a bit less hesitant to do things like go to the pub, since there's such a low chance of catching it.

Latest reported case Local authority/health board Cases 25th June to 9th July
2020-06-04 Derry City and Strabane 0
2020-06-13 Uttlesford 0
2020-06-15 Bath and North East Somerset 0
2020-06-15 Orkney 0
2020-06-15 Western Isles 0
2020-06-18 North Devon 0
2020-06-20 Exeter 0
2020-06-20 Havant 0
2020-06-20 Maldon 0
2020-06-21 Borders -1
2020-06-22 Rossendale 0
2020-06-23 South Hams 0
2020-06-24 Babergh 0
2020-06-24 Monmouthshire 0
2020-06-25 Arun 1
2020-06-25 Causeway Coast and Glens 4
2020-06-26 Barrow-in-Furness 1
2020-06-26 Great Yarmouth 1
2020-06-26 Rushmoor 2
2020-06-26 South Staffordshire 3
2020-06-26 West Devon 1
2020-06-27 Somerset West and Taunton 1
2020-06-27 Torfaen 1
2020-06-28 South Somerset 2
2020-06-29 Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon -10
2020-06-29 Cotswold 1
2020-06-29 Darlington 1
2020-06-29 Eastleigh 2
2020-06-29 Epping Forest 4
2020-06-29 Hastings 2
2020-06-29 King's Lynn and West Norfolk 3
2020-06-29 Mansfield 2
2020-06-29 Powys 2
2020-06-29 Stroud 1
2020-06-29 Winchester 1
2020-06-30 Bolsover 9
2020-06-30 Bromsgrove 11
2020-06-30 East Hampshire 4
2020-06-30 Hambleton 1
2020-06-30 South Bucks 2
2020-06-30 Worthing 3
2020-07-01 Ards and North Down 7
2020-07-01 Mendip 3
2020-07-01 Merthyr Tydfil 109
2020-07-01 Mole Valley 4
2020-07-01 North Somerset 8
2020-07-01 Reading 9
2020-07-01 Richmondshire 3
2020-07-01 Torridge 2
2020-07-02 Basingstoke and Deane 3
2020-07-02 Brighton and Hove 11
2020-07-02 Chorley 6
2020-07-02 East Cambridgeshire 3
2020-07-02 Guildford 6
2020-07-02 Hartlepool 2
2020-07-02 Isle of Wight 3
2020-07-02 New Forest 2
2020-07-02 North East Derbyshire 12
2020-07-02 Richmond upon Thames 5
2020-07-02 South Lakeland 4
2020-07-02 South Norfolk 4
2020-07-02 Sutton 4
2020-07-03 Adur 3
2020-07-03 Broadland 3
2020-07-03 Ceredigion 2
2020-07-03 Cherwell 16
2020-07-03 Craven 4
2020-07-03 Daventry 9
2020-07-03 Denbighshire 8
2020-07-03 Fermanagh and Omagh 2
2020-07-03 Fife 4
2020-07-03 Horsham 6
2020-07-03 Lewes 8
2020-07-03 Lichfield 6
2020-07-03 Mid Suffolk 2
2020-07-03 Newark and Sherwood 3
2020-07-03 North Warwickshire 8
2020-07-03 Norwich 4
2020-07-03 Redcar and Cleveland 5
2020-07-03 Runnymede 4
2020-07-03 Scarborough 1
2020-07-03 Sedgemoor 8
2020-07-03 Spelthorne 8
2020-07-03 Tonbridge and Malling 3
2020-07-03 Tunbridge Wells 9
2020-07-03 Warwick 2
2020-07-03 West Oxfordshire 2
2020-07-03 Wyre Forest 2
2020-07-04 Ashfield 11
2020-07-04 Boston 7
2020-07-04 Breckland 3
2020-07-04 Castle Point 13
2020-07-04 Colchester 13
2020-07-04 Derbyshire Dales 8
2020-07-04 Harlow 3
2020-07-04 Hart 2
2020-07-04 Hinckley and Bosworth 22
2020-07-04 North Norfolk 3
2020-07-04 Redditch 3
2020-07-04 Rochford 8
2020-07-04 Southend-on-Sea 20
2020-07-04 Stevenage 3
2020-07-04 Sunderland 5
2020-07-04 Teignbridge 2
2020-07-04 Waverley 3
2020-07-04 West Suffolk 11
2020-07-05 Ayrshire and Arran 6
2020-07-05 Basildon 16
2020-07-05 Braintree 8
2020-07-05 Canterbury 14
2020-07-05 Carmarthenshire 18
2020-07-05 Ealing 27
2020-07-05 East Lindsey 8
2020-07-05 Folkestone and Hythe 41
2020-07-05 Forest of Dean 2
2020-07-05 Halton 11
2020-07-05 Hammersmith and Fulham 17
2020-07-05 Highland 2
2020-07-05 Huntingdonshire 13
2020-07-05 Lancaster 3
2020-07-05 Luton 48
2020-07-05 Newham 25
2020-07-05 North East Lincolnshire 4
2020-07-05 North Hertfordshire 3
2020-07-05 Oxford 22
2020-07-05 Ribble Valley 9
2020-07-05 Rutland 3
2020-07-05 Ryedale 3
2020-07-05 Selby 7
2020-07-05 Slough 21
2020-07-05 South Gloucestershire 6
2020-07-05 South Kesteven 8
2020-07-05 Surrey Heath 6
2020-07-05 Swale 10
2020-07-05 Swansea 5
2020-07-05 Tandridge 7
2020-07-05 Tayside 8
2020-07-05 Torbay 6
2020-07-05 Warrington 13
2020-07-05 Wealden 16
2020-07-05 Wellingborough 9
2020-07-05 West Lindsey 3
2020-07-05 Wyre 8
2020-07-06 Allerdale 5
2020-07-06 Barnet 18
2020-07-06 Bassetlaw 20
2020-07-06 Blaenau Gwent 6
2020-07-06 Bournemouth Christchurch and Poole 7
2020-07-06 Brentwood 6
2020-07-06 Bridgend 4
2020-07-06 Broxbourne 1
2020-07-06 Broxtowe 8
2020-07-06 Burnley 13
2020-07-06 Bury 28
2020-07-06 Caerphilly 6
2020-07-06 Camden 5
2020-07-06 Cardiff 27
2020-07-06 Central Bedfordshire 24
2020-07-06 Chelmsford 15
2020-07-06 Chiltern 3
2020-07-06 Copeland 6
2020-07-06 Corby 1
2020-07-06 Dacorum 9
2020-07-06 Dover 28
2020-07-06 East Devon 7
2020-07-06 East Hertfordshire 6
2020-07-06 East Riding of Yorkshire 21
2020-07-06 East Suffolk 7
2020-07-06 Eden 1
2020-07-06 Fareham 4
2020-07-06 Fenland 9
2020-07-06 Gedling 5
2020-07-06 Greenwich 10
2020-07-06 Gwynedd 11
2020-07-06 Harrogate 13
2020-07-06 Islington 10
2020-07-06 Kensington and Chelsea 4
2020-07-06 Kingston upon Hull City of 15
2020-07-06 Knowsley 36
2020-07-06 Lambeth 11
2020-07-06 Lanarkshire 16
2020-07-06 Lincoln 7
2020-07-06 Maidstone 13
2020-07-06 Merton 12
2020-07-06 Mid Devon 1
2020-07-06 Middlesbrough 9
2020-07-06 North Kesteven 6
2020-07-06 Northumberland 16
2020-07-06 Plymouth 10
2020-07-06 Portsmouth 5
2020-07-06 Preston 29
2020-07-06 Reigate and Banstead 5
2020-07-06 Rhondda Cynon Taf 18
2020-07-06 Rugby 12
2020-07-06 Rushcliffe 8
2020-07-06 Shropshire 41
2020-07-06 South Cambridgeshire 5
2020-07-06 South Derbyshire 6
2020-07-06 South Holland 10
2020-07-06 Southampton 16
2020-07-06 St. Helens 14
2020-07-06 Stafford 16
2020-07-06 Staffordshire Moorlands 20
2020-07-06 Swindon 18
2020-07-06 Tendring 6
2020-07-06 Tewkesbury 8
2020-07-06 Thanet 28
2020-07-06 Three Rivers 10
2020-07-06 Thurrock 10
2020-07-06 Trafford 21
2020-07-06 Vale of Glamorgan 13
2020-07-06 Vale of White Horse 5
2020-07-06 Wandsworth 18
2020-07-06 Watford 9
2020-07-06 West Berkshire 4
2020-07-06 Wirral 24
2020-07-06 Wokingham 8
2020-07-06 Wrexham 72
2020-07-06 Wycombe 19
2020-07-06 York 11
2020-07-07 Amber Valley 9
2020-07-07 Antrim and Newtownabbey 0
2020-07-07 Ashford 56
2020-07-07 Aylesbury Vale 26
2020-07-07 Barking and Dagenham 13
2020-07-07 Barnsley 104
2020-07-07 Bexley 17
2020-07-07 Birmingham 114
2020-07-07 Blaby 35
2020-07-07 Blackburn with Darwen 71
2020-07-07 Bolton 90
2020-07-07 Bracknell Forest 6
2020-07-07 Brent 25
2020-07-07 Bristol City of 15
2020-07-07 Bromley 10
2020-07-07 Calderdale 55
2020-07-07 Cambridge 7
2020-07-07 Cannock Chase 19
2020-07-07 Carlisle 40
2020-07-07 Charnwood 48
2020-07-07 Cheltenham 7
2020-07-07 Cheshire East 49
2020-07-07 Cheshire West and Chester 65
2020-07-07 Chesterfield 7
2020-07-07 Chichester 2
2020-07-07 Conwy 16
2020-07-07 Cornwall 14
2020-07-07 County Durham 26
2020-07-07 Coventry 19
2020-07-07 Crawley 20
2020-07-07 Dartford 25
2020-07-07 Doncaster 66
2020-07-07 Dorset 7
2020-07-07 Dudley 15
2020-07-07 East Northamptonshire 21
2020-07-07 East Staffordshire 24
2020-07-07 Eastbourne 24
2020-07-07 Elmbridge 6
2020-07-07 Enfield 20
2020-07-07 Epsom and Ewell 5
2020-07-07 Flintshire 12
2020-07-07 Fylde 14
2020-07-07 Gateshead 6
2020-07-07 Gloucester 4
2020-07-07 Gosport 4
2020-07-07 Gravesham 15
2020-07-07 Hackney 22
2020-07-07 Harborough 25
2020-07-07 Haringey 12
2020-07-07 Harrow 15
2020-07-07 Havering 17
2020-07-07 Hertsmere 3
2020-07-07 High Peak 7
2020-07-07 Hillingdon 35
2020-07-07 Hounslow 27
2020-07-07 Hyndburn 3
2020-07-07 Ipswich 7
2020-07-07 Isle of Anglesey 9
2020-07-07 Kettering 26
2020-07-07 Kingston upon Thames 9
2020-07-07 Leeds 107
2020-07-07 Liverpool 76
2020-07-07 Malvern Hills 8
2020-07-07 Medway 26
2020-07-07 Melton 9
2020-07-07 Mid Sussex 4
2020-07-07 Mid Ulster -3
2020-07-07 Neath Port Talbot 6
2020-07-07 Newcastle upon Tyne 11
2020-07-07 Newcastle-under-Lyme 25
2020-07-07 Newport 5
2020-07-07 North Lincolnshire 11
2020-07-07 North Tyneside 4
2020-07-07 North West Leicestershire 19
2020-07-07 Northampton 66
2020-07-07 Nottingham 36
2020-07-07 Nuneaton and Bedworth 28
2020-07-07 Oadby and Wigston 34
2020-07-07 Pembrokeshire 2
2020-07-07 Pendle 51
2020-07-07 Redbridge 25
2020-07-07 Rochdale 147
2020-07-07 Rotherham 111
2020-07-07 Salford 38
2020-07-07 Sandwell 27
2020-07-07 Sefton 23
2020-07-07 Sheffield 201
2020-07-07 Solihull 13
2020-07-07 South Northamptonshire 9
2020-07-07 South Oxfordshire 10
2020-07-07 South Ribble 17
2020-07-07 Southwark 19
2020-07-07 Stockport 35
2020-07-07 Stockton-on-Tees 21
2020-07-07 Stratford-on-Avon 9
2020-07-07 Tameside 49
2020-07-07 Tamworth 10
2020-07-07 Telford and Wrekin 17
2020-07-07 Test Valley 3
2020-07-07 Wakefield 77
2020-07-07 Walsall 19
2020-07-07 Waltham Forest 23
2020-07-07 West Lancashire 13
2020-07-07 Westminster 9
2020-07-07 Wigan 21
2020-07-07 Wiltshire 17
2020-07-07 Windsor and Maidenhead 4
2020-07-07 Wolverhampton 27
2020-07-07 Worcester 9
2020-07-07 Wychavon 5
2020-07-08 Bedford 55
2020-07-08 Belfast 10
2020-07-08 Blackpool 24
2020-07-08 Bradford 389
2020-07-08 Croydon 15
2020-07-08 Derby 41
2020-07-08 Erewash 16
2020-07-08 Grampian 14
2020-07-08 Herefordshire County of 13
2020-07-08 Kirklees 248
2020-07-08 Leicester 804
2020-07-08 Lewisham 7
2020-07-08 Lisburn and Castlereagh 13
2020-07-08 Manchester 147
2020-07-08 Mid and East Antrim 12
2020-07-08 Milton Keynes 12
2020-07-08 Oldham 99
2020-07-08 Peterborough 75
2020-07-08 Rother 9
2020-07-08 Sevenoaks 14
2020-07-08 South Tyneside 4
2020-07-08 St Albans 40
2020-07-08 Stoke-on-Trent 53
2020-07-08 Tower Hamlets 22
2020-07-08 Welwyn Hatfield 10
2020-07-08 Woking 21
2020-07-09 Dumfries and Galloway 11
2020-07-09 Forth Valley 24
2020-07-09 Greater Glasgow and Clyde 31
2020-07-09 Lothian 9
2020-07-09 Newry, Mourne and Down 19

Notes for Scotland

Scotland reports data based on local health boards rather than local authorities and with the date they were reported rather than the date the swab was taken. This will result in higher numbers than elsewhere and the latest cases being slightly more recent than the rest of the UK.

Notes for NI

Some parts of NI (and also Scotland) are reporting negative cases, which is mathematically impossible. I believe is due to the authorities reporting data incorrectly and then correcting it later without updating the historical data. In Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon, as an example, there had been 754 confirmed cases on the 25th of June, which has dropped in several stages to 744 today.

Data sources

Edit: Welsh data was missing. I've added it now!
submitted by _c9s_ to CoronavirusUK [link] [comments]


2020.06.02 22:07 booperandfriends [Survey] Looking for past and present Pit Bull owners to fill out a survey!

Hello all!
I want to write an article about Pit Bulls, similar to a breed guide, using information from ACTUAL PIT BULL OWNERS! (Aka you!) The web is saturated with breed guides, but most of them just take their info from sources like the AKC. I'm curious to know how a real Pit Bull owner's experience compares to what is written on the AKC or other breed club's websites. I've never owned a Pit Bull, so I came here to ask those of you who do!
Therefore, I created a survey asking a number of questions about Pit Bulls. For this specific survey, I am only interested in four Pit Bull breeds: American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, and American Bully.
If you're feeling left out because your dog is a Pit Bull mix or some other type of bully breed, know that I may do a survey for those in the future, especially if this first one does well.
You can probably complete this survey within 10 minutes.

Take the survey here.

The survey is divided into sections. Please only fill out the section that pertains to the breed(s) you have. I decided to separate the sections so that it will be easier for me to filter the data by breed.
If you have more than one Pit Bull of the same breed and would like to complete the survey separately for each dog, you are able to do so.
Just so you know, I am NOT collecting email addresses. I did not turn this feature on. You are required to sign in only because there is an option to upload a photo of your dog to potentially be used in the article (but you don't have to if you don't want to).
Thank you so much to anyone who helps me out by taking this survey! Feel free to leave comments here on Reddit as well if you think there is anything I should know about Pit Bulls that isn't covered in my survey. You're the best!
*The goal of this survey is to create an article that will provide information about Pit Bulls using the experiences of actual Pit Bull owners. The goal is neither to put Pit Bulls on a pedestal or demonize them. The final article will be based on the answers I receive from the survey, and I may compare and contrast these answers to the information on the AKC website to see how things are similar and different.
*I will not be making money off this article and it will not be created for or sold to any company. It is all my own personal interest and will be posted on my personal blog.
submitted by booperandfriends to dogs [link] [comments]


2020.06.02 02:44 booperandfriends [Survey] Calling all past and present Pit Bull owners! Help me write about your dogs!

(This post has been cross-posted)
Hello all!
I run my own dog blog called booperandfriends where I write a number of different articles. At the same time, I work as a freelance writer and have been commissioned many times to write breed guides. Every time I write these, especially about dogs I personally have never owned/spent a lot of time with, I always feel somewhat out of my depth. In fact, it can feel a bit pointless to write a breed guide at all when the web is SATURATED with them
That's why for my website, I want to do something different. And to do so, I need YOUR help! I want to write breed guides using the experiences of people who ACTUALLY OWN THESE BREEDS (or have owned them in the past).
Therefore, I created a survey asking a number of questions about Pit Bulls. For this specific survey, I am only interested in four Pit Bull breeds: American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, and American Bully.
If you're feeling left out because your dog is a Pit Bull mix or some other type of bully breed, know that I may do a survey for those in the future, especially if this first one does well.
You can probably complete this survey within 10 minutes.

Take the survey here.

EDIT: I created a new survey with the same questions, but it is separated by breed. Please only fill out the section that pertains to the breed(s) you have. I decided to separate the sections so that it will be easier for me to filter the date by breed. I will still be using the data from the last survey, but I will have to put it together manually. I apologize for my noobiness.
If you have more than one Pit Bull and would like to complete the survey separately for each dog, you are able to do so.
Just so you know, I am NOT collecting email addresses. I did not turn this feature on. You are required to sign in only because there is an option to upload a photo of your dog to potentially be used in the article (but you don't have to if you don't want to).
Thank you so much to anyone who helps me out by taking this survey! Feel free to leave comments here on Reddit as well if you think there is anything I should know about Pit Bulls that isn't covered in my survey. You're the best!
submitted by booperandfriends to pitbulls [link] [comments]


2020.05.13 10:17 ERBarratt [RevShare] Pixel Artist wanted for 2D stealth metroidvania - I am programmer of 15+ years.

Hello there!
I am in the midst of creating a 2D stealth metroidvania, in a fantasy setting. Think Styx / Dishonered / Thief in 2D with randomly generated houses sprinkled amidst a unified story. The scope is intentionally small to increase the chance I see this to completion and get confidence in funding.
The city is Kierkegaard, a fantasy medieval city with vast areas locked down in Quarantine. You, the player, want to take advantage of your thievery skills and the current situation to increase your wealth whilst the populace is distracted! Story ensues...
I am looking for a pixel artist who can deliver similar to https://www.artstation.com/sventhole in style, perhaps with slightly larger pixel amounts. I am hoping for a real collaboration (I have no interest in being a dictator), so having a strong interest in the Fantasy genre, DND, Fantasy Books (Belgariad, Brandon Sanderson, Terry Pratchett, Joe Abercrombie etc) will hopefully mean we're on the same wavelength!
I am a programmer with over 15 years experience, and I hold degrees in Music Design and English Literature (Creative Writing) from Staffordshire University (Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/elliottbarratt/ ). I have spent the last year or so teaching myself Unity game's development, and will hopefully soon be doing a part-time Master's in Game Design (At Staffordshire University again). I have been coding with C# for over 10 years.
I have created my own physics and collision system for Unity (as most will not wanting to use the sledge hammer of Box2D for the peanut of a platformer) and am actively prototyping game mechanics with stock sprites that I can get my hands on.
My aim is to create a full "level" / area that can be used to launch a successful crowd fund. Whilst I've not crowd funded anything in the past, I have drawn investment for my current company, and delivered 10's of year+ spanning projects in software (usually data analysis systems and information logistics systems). I want to use my skills in something I'm passionate about now! I have management experience.
My main job (up until COVID) was Director of Development at Tabx (https://tabx.online) which is primarily web based tech, so amongst the list of things I can provide there are: Website Creation, Music and Sound creation / management, Story and Plot creation and obviously lead game code programming.
In terms of split, I'm seriously willing to go up to 50/50 of REVENUE, after mutual business costs (if any). If crowd funded, we will agree a schedule of payment transfer and amounts to ensure level and consistent income for us both. I'm really looking for someone to help craft the world visually and figuratively and who is willing to bring some unique flair to the project. I want you to match my enthusiasm!
Pixel art is my preferred choice, however straight 2D art of the right style is also ok!
Look forward to hearing from you chaps!
Note - this may be posted to multiple boards.
Elliott.
submitted by ERBarratt to gameDevClassifieds [link] [comments]


2020.05.13 10:16 ERBarratt [RevShare] Pixel Artist wanted for 2D stealth metroidvania - I am programmer of 15+ years.

Hello there!
I am in the midst of creating a 2D stealth metroidvania, in a fantasy setting. Think Styx / Dishonered / Thief in 2D with randomly generated houses sprinkled amidst a unified story. The scope is intentionally small to increase the chance I see this to completion and get confidence in funding.
The city is Kierkegaard, a fantasy medieval city with vast areas locked down in Quarantine. You, the player, want to take advantage of your thievery skills and the current situation to increase your wealth whilst the populace is distracted! Story ensues...
I am looking for a pixel artist who can deliver similar to https://www.artstation.com/sventhole in style, perhaps with slightly larger pixel amounts. I am hoping for a real collaboration (I have no interest in being a dictator), so having a strong interest in the Fantasy genre, DND, Fantasy Books (Belgariad, Brandon Sanderson, Terry Pratchett, Joe Abercrombie etc) will hopefully mean we're on the same wavelength!
I am a programmer with over 15 years experience, and I hold degrees in Music Design and English Literature (Creative Writing) from Staffordshire University (Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/elliottbarratt/ ). I have spent the last year or so teaching myself Unity game's development, and will hopefully soon be doing a part-time Master's in Game Design (At Staffordshire University again). I have been coding with C# for over 10 years.
I have created my own physics and collision system for Unity (as most will not wanting to use the sledge hammer of Box2D for the peanut of a platformer) and am actively prototyping game mechanics with stock sprites that I can get my hands on.
My aim is to create a full "level" / area that can be used to launch a successful crowd fund. Whilst I've not crowd funded anything in the past, I have drawn investment for my current company, and delivered 10's of year+ spanning projects in software (usually data analysis systems and information logistics systems). I want to use my skills in something I'm passionate about now! I have management experience.
My main job (up until COVID) was Director of Development at Tabx (https://tabx.online) which is primarily web based tech, so amongst the list of things I can provide there are: Website Creation, Music and Sound creation / management, Story and Plot creation and obviously lead game code programming.
In terms of split, I'm seriously willing to go up to 50/50 of REVENUE, after mutual business costs (if any). If crowd funded, we will agree a schedule of payment transfer and amounts to ensure level and consistent income for us both. I'm really looking for someone to help craft the world visually and figuratively and who is willing to bring some unique flair to the project. I want you to match my enthusiasm!
Pixel art is my preferred choice, however straight 2D art of the right style is also ok!
Look forward to hearing from you chaps!
Note - this may be posted to multiple boards.
Elliott.
submitted by ERBarratt to INAT [link] [comments]


2020.03.22 12:14 Jtacker [For Hire] Highly Analytical Post-Graduate looking for Remote Work

Hey, I'm James and I'm looking for a remote position doing practically anything. I'm highly analytical, organized and meticulous, I have a keen eye for detail and always meet deadlines. I take full responsibility for the tasks set to me and am fully able to work without constant instruction.
Education & Work History:
B.A. Fine Art - Norwich University of the Arts
M.A. Continental Philosophy - Staffordshire University
120 Hour TESOL
2+ Years teaching experience
3+ Years proofreading, editing and writing experience
1+ Year marketing experience
(Full CV on request)
Software & Tech:
Word, Excel, Google Docs, Sheets, Hangouts, Blackboard, Wordpress, Slack, OBS, Drupal, Plesk, Linux, OSX, Social Media, HTML, CSS, Photoshop, Illustrator, Audacity, Skype and more.
Work I Can Provide:
Content Creation
Proofreading, Editing and Writing
Design and Image Correction
Virtual Assistance
Online Tutoring
Data Entry
Marketing
Rates: $20p/h
Thank you for taking the time to read this, please DM me for any further details.
submitted by Jtacker to forhire [link] [comments]


2020.03.20 22:23 jbear178 I am a 23 year old graduate student making $30k in Austin, Texas

Basic info
Age: 24 (I typed this wrong in the title - whoops)
Gender: Woman
Job Title: Graduate Student
Industry: STEM
Location: Austin, TX
Assets
IRA: $5725.02
Savings account balance: $28,572.08
Checking account balance: $1,047.75
Debts
Student loans: $31,612.74. That’s a $27,000.00 principal balance plus $4,612.74 of interest. My average interest rate is 4.14%. My loans are deferred right now because I’m still in school.
Income
Annual salary: $30,000 + a $2k stipend that can be used for research-related travel or expenses (this year, I used it to travel to a training course and a conference in my field. Previously I have used it to purchase a new laptop or other tech expenses)
Monthly take home: $2500 (without taxes taken out – I switched to a “fellowship” pay structure in September which means that I owed taxes for September-April.
Monthly expenses
Rent: $780 I live with four roommates in a 4b/3br house that’s about a 15 min walk from campus. In one room is me and my partner, E. Our two friends (also a couple) live in another room, and another friend has his own room. We all split rent equally. Everyone except E is a grad student.
Groceries: $80 (My partner E and I live together and try to split food mostly evenly – he makes more than I do so he pays for groceries more frequently than I do).
Utilities: ~$70 (varies a little bit depending on our electricity bill. Includes wifi, gas, and electricity).
Phone: $23.48. I’m on E’s family plan.
Spotify: $5.49
Dog food/expenses: ~$25 but depends on the month!
Health insurance: $0 – We have health insurance included in our stipends, which is amazing.
iCloud - $0.99
Gym classes: $14.75 – Since I’m a student, I get to use the gym on campus for free. This semester, I’m trying out their class program. I’ve been really lazy about actually going to the gym, so I was hoping that paying a little bit of money would get me up and at ‘em. (COVID-19 UPDATE: We'll be getting refunded for the rest of the semester since the gym is closed now).
Day 1
6:00am - E's alarm goes off and he gets ready for work. I wish him well and snuggle back into bed.
7:00am – my alarm goes off and I snooze for 30 more min. I’m blessed to both have some flexibility in my schedule and have a dog that lets me sleep in!
7:45am – I take the dog, P, out and make some avocado toast before biking to campus.
9:00am – I’m sitting at my desk! Some job description – I’m a third-year grad student working on my PhD. I have a pretty flexible schedule since I'm done with classes and my boss is very hands-off. This semester, I’m trying to take time midday to go to workout classes at the university gym.
12:00pm – Lunch time! I pack my lunch pretty much every day. Today it’s sheet pan gnocchi and sausage from Howsweeteats – HIGHLY recommend to anyone looking for a quick and tasty meal!
2:00pm – I have a meeting with another student for a department safety organization. We’re giving a presentation to some faculty next week and discuss talking points.
3:30pm – Give into my urges and walk to 7-11 with my friend to get snacks. I spend $5.61 on popcorn, chips, and some sale candy…oops.
5:00pm – Get home, walk P, play fetch with her for a bit. She’s a senior lady but she’ll play fetch forever if you let her! Then E and I head to the grocery store. We’re having people over for a DnD intro session tonight, so I pick up carrots, hummus, pimento cheese, club crackers, 7-Up cupcakes (don’t ask…), a six-pack of beer for E, and a bottle of wine for $46.26.
10pm – DnD was a success! I’ve never played before but one of my labmates plays with some of his friends, and he offered to DM for a few of us. I head up to bed while E stays downstairs watching TV for a bit longer.
Daily total: $51.87
Day 2
7:40am – I wake up without an alarm and snuggle in bed for a bit longer before getting up to take the dog out and drop E off at his Saturday morning class.
9:00am – A sudden and dire bagel craving hits me after dropping E off and I head to Nervous Charlie’s. I text my friend C and she asks me to pick her up two bagels too. I get cinnamon raisin/plain cream cheese plus everything/scallion cream cheese for her, as well as a sesame/garlic herb cream cheese for me. This comes out to $12.63. C and I see each other all the time and take turns paying for food.
10:00am – C and I eat our bagels and hang out in her apartment. We went to college together in NYC and she moved to Austin about a year after I did because she needed a break from the city. I’m super happy to have her here and love spending time together! She tells me about a show at the local improv theater tonight and I buy tickets for E and me for $30.00.
12:00pm – C lives right down the street from a plant nursery, and I need a few terra cotta pots to do some repotting. I also see a really cute plant that’s only $6, so I scoop it up. The plant and the pots comes to $22.73.
1:00pm – Get home, repot my plants, and vacuum the house. The dog got a new toy that was shredding strings everywhere, and it made a real mess of the living room rug. P and I play in the backyard for a bit. She twists her knee and is limping a bit. I debate taking her to the vet but decide not to – although she generally acts like a puppy, she’s technically a senior and does have some arthritis in her back knee. I text E and we decide to wait a few days and see if she’s still hurting.
2:00pm – My friends from high school FaceTime me. We’ve been talking about doing a trip to San Diego, and we finalize a weekend and start to check out AirBnbs. I don’t buy flights yet because I feel like they’ll go down a little with this COVID panic. (COVID-19 UPDATE: I am now very glad that I didn't buy those flights).
2:40 pm – E gets home from class and I eat the last of the sheet pan gnocchi.
4:15pm – I head out to babysit for a few hours. I decided that I wanted a bit of cash income on the side and I missed playing with kids, so I picked up a few babysitting jobs. The families that I babysit for are lovely and it’s a nice way to make a few extra bucks! I make $40 for two hours.
6:30 pm – I head home to get ready for the show tonight! We go to get soup beforehand at a place next to the theater. I get Frito pie for $5.84. We head to the theater and I get a Coke for $2.
10:00pm – That show was hilarious! Well worth the money. It was written by the creators of Wet Hot American Summer in 1998. E and I head home and want to watch Wet Hot American Summer, but it’s not available to stream anywhere. We settle for Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story instead before heading up to bed around midnight.
Daily total: $73.20
Day 3
9:00am – I wake up disoriented because I’m tired, but it’s late…then realize that I have Daylight Savings jet lag! I run downstairs to take P out, who is moving a bit better than she was yesterday but is still avoiding putting weight on her back leg. She’s letting us touch it without complaining, so I figure it’s fine to give it a few more days. While I’m walking P, I get a text from C that she had to take her senior dog to the emergency vet. We finish our walk and I hop in E’s car to go meet her up there.
12:00pm – After a rough morning at the vet, it was time for C’s dog to cross the rainbow bridge. She was 18 and went peacefully, but it was still hard to let her go. We head to lunch, where C pays.
3:30pm – Get home and cuddle with P and tell her how much I love her and that she better be immortal. E and I head to the grocery store to get stuff for lunches for the week. E pays for groceries. We head home and prep our street cart-inspired chicken and yogurt sauce to put in salads (recipe from Skinnytaste and the chicken turned out great!). One of my roommate’s dads was in China recently and brought him back a bunch of snacks, and we’re all home for once, so we gather in our dining room to do a taste taste/rating of all of them.
7:00pm – I got E concert tickets for Christmas and tonight is the night! He was supposed to have a friend come visit and accompany him but it turned out that he couldn’t make it, so I get to go! The whole thing was kind of a weird structure, but we had fun dancing. We were some of the oldest ones there (which should tell you something about the crowd). (COVID-19 UPDATE: if I had known what the next week would bring, I probably would not have gone to this concert).
11:00pm – After the concert, we head to a 24-hour diner that’s right near our house that we’ve been meaning to try. It was awesome! E pays.
12:00pm – We head home and fall asleep immediately.
Daily total: $0
Day 4
7:00am – My alarm goes off and that’s a big nope from me. I didn't even hear E's alarm go off earlier. I decide that I would rather get into lab a little later than be unproductive and tired all day. I snooze until 8:15 when I finally crawl out of bed.
9:30am – Get back from walking P, eat breakfast, make lunch, and head to work, where I head into the lab.
1:30pm – Finish up some experiments and eat lunch in the break room. The street cart chicken turned out pretty well! Then snack on some Smartfood popcorn at my desk and finalize some talking points for my meeting with professors (I mentioned it a few days ago). I’m part of our department student safety committee, and we’re working to become more established and provide more resources for the department. This meeting is for us to update the professors on some of our initiatives.
5:30pm – Wrap up in lab and get ready to head home. I hate starting new tasks around 5 because it means I’ll be here until 8 and then that kills my productivity for the next day. Grad school can be a blessing and a curse because I have the independence to come in and leave whenever I want, which often means working 12-hour days. This year, I’ve been trying to keep more balance between work hours and life hours. Adopting P has helped with this for sure. E also moved down in August after we were long distance for two years and having him here in person has helped me maintain balance too.
6:00pm – Head down to C’s house for dinner and emotional support. She picked up supplies for grilled cheese and tomato soup from HEB, but I wanted to get her flowers, so I run to the store too. I pick up daffodils and brownie bites for $10.21.
10:00pm – Get home and chill on the couch with E for a bit. He’s watching Narcos, so I follow along for a bit before getting out my book, Bad Blood by John Carreyrou. It’s fascinating, and every time I think it can’t get crazier, it does. We head to bed around 11:30.
Daily total: $10.21
Day 5
6:00am – E wakes up to go to work and I roll over and fall asleep again.
7:44am – Whoops, I accidentally turned my alarm off yesterday when I slept in. Hop out of bed and get dressed to take P out.
8:30am – Pack lunch, obtain gym clothes, bike to work. Get to work and make iced coffee from cold brew concentrate and creamer in our break room fridge. I have instrument time scheduled at 10 so I prep for my meeting and update my lab notebook while I wait.
1:00pm – Break from lab and eat our leftover street cart chicken.
2:00pm – Head to the meeting that I’ve been prepping for. It goes pretty well! I think our org has a promising future as long as we stay focused and keep pushing our initiatives in the department.
3:30pm – I have another instrument time scheduled, so I head back down to the basement with my samples.
6:30pm – I finish up and head to the gym for a conditioning class. I throw on my favorite OV workout leggings and get ready to SWEAT. It’s only a 45 min class but by the end I’m feeling it.
7:30pm – I have to go back to lab to get my bike and decide to finish a few things up while I’m there. “A few things” turns into 40 min and before I know it it’s 8:15.
8:30pm – Arrive home and make a grilled cheese sandwich for dinner (yes, that’s two nights in a row). See on FB that fiddle leaf figs in 6” pots are only $13 at HEB right now, so two of my roommates and I run over there. I don’t get one for myself because I’m out of big plant real estate, but they have a ton and they’re really nice! However, I DO get a box of chocolate pretzel Poptarts for E and me to try later for $2. (They were fine - much better hot).
9:30pm – My mom calls me to book a flight for Easter. We were going to go to VA to visit my brother at school, but my grandfather had a pretty bad accident about a month ago, so I’m going home to NJ instead. She travels a lot for work, so she’s using her points to get me this flight. I’m very appreciative because I have a bunch of trips coming up. I planned a few trips because I didn’t have any upcoming travel, and now suddenly I’m overwhelmed because I’m going too many places. I’m justifying it because E and I were long distance until this year, so I took a lot more flights. E gets home from class while I’m talking to her. (COVID-19 UPDATE: I haven't cancelled this flight yet, but I probably should - I don't think it's smart for me to see my grandparents. I'm not overwhelmed from too many trips anymore because they're all cancelled...heh).
11:30pm – After reading for a bit and cuddling with P, E and I get into bed and fall asleep around midnight.
Daily total: $2.00
Day 6
7:00am – E has already left me. My alarm goes off and I hit the snooze button HARD. I was getting used to it being light when I woke up, and it’s been hard to get up in the dark again.
8:00am – Take out P, assemble my lunch (street cart chicken again), and bike to work.
9:15am – Finish up the experiments that I ran overnight – they don’t look very good (sad) so I’ll probably have to do them again tonight. My motivation is always super low after a late night at work, but I also have trouble just coming in later. Productivity just naturally ebbs and flows, so I’ve been trying to capitalize on the days that I actually want to get things done and waste less time on the days that I don’t. Ya know?
10:00am – There’s an event on campus that’s giving away free fanny packs, so my friend A and I run over to get one. Happy day before spring break!
11:30 am – The free stuff just keeps getting better! I walk to get coffee and there’s a table on the street giving away free Chick Fil A sandwiches and sunglasses. That means I can save my lunch for either tomorrow or dinner.
2:30pm – I head to a quick yoga class midday because I don’t think I’ll have time to go after work. It ends up really nice and I can feel myself getting stronger!
4:00pm – Head to my favorite instrument (same as yesterday). I get lost in the data collection and when I look up it’s 7! E texts to tell me that he took P on a 40-minute walk and she didn’t pee the whole time…after being inside all day… she has a bladder of steel and is VERY stubborn.
7:00pm – Run back to lab to finish a few things up before I head home. I think this is gonna be another late night, which always shoots my productivity for the next morning.
8:00 pm – Ready to head home! Despite eating a fig bar and two clementines before running back into lab, I’m HUNGRY. And since I’m tired, I want FRIES. We might have some in the freezer. I know I shouldn’t go out to get any because we definitely have tortellini and Rao’s sauce at home. My challenge is always avoiding spending money once I get home from work.
8:30pm – Get home and make tortellini (go me!). My roommates are talking about the COVID-19 travel ban and we turn on the news. My boss is in France right now, so I’m worried that he’ll get stuck in Europe.
9:30pm – E gets off the phone with his stepdad and we take P out for a walk. She STILL doesn’t pee right away. We get back and cuddle with her for a bit before getting into bed. She just found a tennis ball under the couch and she curls up with it in her bed.
10:30pm – We get into bed and talk about finances for a bit. E is in the business world, so he’s usually my go-to source for money advice (other than money diaries, of course). He advises me to use some of my savings to pay off a chunk of my student loans and start funneling some of my leftover money to my IRA. (COVID-19 UPDATE: As I'm now preparing to live in a bunker forever, I'll probably wait to make any big financial decisions).
11:20pm – Time for bed!
Daily total: $0
Day 7
7:00am – At this point, you know the drill. I snooze again before crawling out of bed to take P out.
8:15am – While we’re walking, I see that our neighbors have some chickens that they’re allowing to roam. P catches sight of them and immediately goes on high alert. She won’t take her eyes off of them and even poops while still staring at them. She’s cracking me up. I think she just wants to herd them (She’s ¼ border collie and ¾ Staffordshire terrier).
9:00am – After a bowl of Golden Grahams (my favorite cereal!) it’s time to head into work. My experiments from last night turned out MUCH better, and so I prep them for the next round of characterization. My boss sends an email that he’ll be able to come back from France, but he will have to be in self-quarantine for two weeks. He tells us that we can still come into lab as long as we’re well, but we should be washing our hands frequently and staying home if we feel any symptoms at all. It’s nice to hear this from him, as many of the other professors are encouraging grad students to work at all costs. I’m a bit conflicted about this. I don’t think that the widespread panic about COVID-19 is helping anything or anyone, and in fact the panic is making it worse for people with preexisting conditions who need medical care and are unable to get it when people are swarming the emergency rooms. It’s nice to have the option to stay home if necessary without being forced to work from home (and it’s difficult to work from home when the majority of your work requires a lab and lab equipment). However, it sometimes feels like grad students fall into a gray area between students and employees where we get the worst of both worlds. For example, I’m no longer taking classes, so class cancellations and spring break extensions don’t affect me (employee). On the other hand, when we’re working in lab, we’re not eligible for workers comp, and we’re technically students in terms of university benefits like on-campus healthcare providers. (COVID-19 UPDATE: Campus is shut down, except for grad students, who are supposed to play it by ear. I've been working from home this week. I'm also our lab's head safety officer, so I've been helping to put emergency protocol into place).
11:00am – sitting at my desk, panicking about COVID some more. To soothe myself, I buy E’s birthday presents. It makes me feel like I have something under control. They come to $72.80. (COVID-19 UPDATE: glad I bought these when I did!).
12:00pm – lunchtime! Finally finishing up the street cart chicken.
1:00pm – More instrument time! Hopefully everything works ok.
5:00pm – Time to head home! The university extended spring break for two weeks and suggested that faculty prepare some online lectures. I check in with my mom and dad and make sure they and my grandparents are doing okay.
8:00pm – Ate dinner, walked P, chatted with E. Honestly, it’s all a blur – I’m very anxious about what’s going to happen.
10:00pm – Bedtime! As of now, the university is still open, so I’ll be going to work tomorrow. (COVID-19 UPDATE: They closed campus at 4 am for all non-essential personnel, so I did not in fact go to work).
Daily total: $72.80
Weekly total: $210.08
Overall thoughts: Um, this week was insane – it started with a very emotional vet visit and ended with quarantine. What a week to decide to start keeping a money diary!
My expenses are pretty typical. I definitely fluctuate between zero spend days and then days where I place orders or eat out. With self-isolation in place, I'm definitely saving money on eating out and ordering things online, which is both good and bad. Let me know in the comments if you have any questions!!
submitted by jbear178 to MoneyDiariesACTIVE [link] [comments]


2020.02.28 11:04 juniperpublishers-j Influence of Cardio-Respiratory Fitness on Physical Performance in Elite Youth Soccer- Juniper Publishers

Juniper Publishers- Journal of Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sports

Introduction

Soccer is described as a high-intensity intermittent sport, with elite players demonstrating a superior ability to perform high-intensity activities during competitive match-play in both adult [1] and youth [2] soccer. During match-play, however, low intensity activities account for the majority of an individual’s physical performance, at all levels of competition [3,4]. As a result, the aerobic energy system is the predominant source of energy expenditure during soccer match-play, accounting for more than 90% of the total energy demand [3]. Furthermore, research suggests that youth populations are better equipped to use oxidative energy pathways, when compared to adult populations, resulting in a greater utilisation of aerobic energy pathways for the same relative exercise intensity and reduced level of metabolic acidosis [5,6].Consequently, determinants of cardio-respiratory (aerobic) fitness may have a significant impact upon youth players’ physical performance during soccer match-play and, in particular, their ability to perform repeated bouts of high intensity activities. Superior levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) will, theoretically, enable players to work at a higher intensity during soccer match-play, for a lower relative energy cost than those with inferior levels of VO2max [1]. Furthermore, soccer-specific endurance capacity has been shown to be an essential characteristic for youth players aiming to progress to elite adult status [7,8]. Despite this, the impact of enhanced aerobic capacity(VO2max) on physical soccer performance has produced equivocal results. With some studies reporting positive relationships between VO2max and physical performance measures associated with soccer match-play [9], while others have reported no relationship between VO2max and measures of physical performance [10]. Rebelo et al. [10] reported that the high intensity running performed during a competitive match, in adult soccer was closely related to a player’s VO2max (r = 0.81). Despite the equivocal nature of the relationship between VO2max and markers of match-play, the attainment of measures of physical performance in situ (during match-play) are lacking. Such measures will enhance the ecological validity and application of measures obtained from both laboratory and field tests, when used to assess team sports performance. Thus, aiding in the assessment of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and team sports performance, with further implications for training practices as well as talent identification and development.
Large components of competitive soccer match-play are comprised of low intensity activity [3], as a result, superior levels of running economy (RE) may result in the preservation of energy during periods of low-intensity exercise. Work by Ziogas et al. [11] revealed that players who competed in a higher division had a superior RE when running at 12 km/h- 1 (Division A = 75.8%, Division B = 78.7%, Division C = 80.5% VO2max). This demonstrates that measures of RE (expressed as a percentage of VO2max) may be able to discriminate between playing level, but provides no indication to the extent to which RE may impact upon physical performance during soccer matchplay. Moreover, Stroyer et al. [4] assessed the RE and the activity patterns of young soccer players during match-play, however the relationship between the two measures was not reported. As a result, the contribution that RE and determinants of RE may play with regard to effective soccer-match play, particularly in youth populations, where there is an increased reliance upon aerobic energy production [5,12], requires investigating. Furthermore, due to the intensified [13], exhaustive and intermittent [1,3] nature of soccer, other determinants of RE may also provide an indication toward an individual’s ability to perform highintensity activities during soccer match-play. Di Paco et al. [14] demonstrated an improved ventilatory efficiency for a given exercise intensity in soccer players of a superior fitness level. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between: VO2max, RE and determinants of RE, and physical measures associated with elite youth soccer performance during soccer match-play within a group of highly trained youth soccer players. It was hypothesized that superior measures of VO2max, RE and parameters of RE would be significantly correlated with physical performance measures during elite youth soccer match-play.

Methods

Seventeen highly trained youth soccer players aged between 12 and 14 years volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were outfield players (5 defenders, 6 midfielders and 6 attackers) from the same Category One, Premier League Soccer Academy. Prior to the commencement of the study, all players completed medical health questionnaires and training history questionnaires. Table 1 illustrates all anthropometric and screening measures. Maturity status was quantified using self-assessment, Tanner Stage method and maturity offset [15]. Players and their parents were informed about all procedures and requirements involved in the study before providing written informed consent and assent from parents and participants, respectively. Ethical approval was granted from the local university ethics committee prior to the commencement of the study. Data collection was conducted over a three-week period at the beginning of a competitive season (pre-season). During this period, anthropometric measurements as well as laboratory and field tests were conducted. The players visited the laboratory on 2 separate occasions, they then performed a field test and were involved in 3 sterile (same playing surface, pitch dimensions and including the same composition of players in the same positions) 11 v 11 matches. Goal keepers were excluded from the analysis due to the incomparable match demands with outfield players. Furthermore, while two teams of 10 outfield players equates to 20 potential participants, 3 of the players (despite taking part in the training matches) chose not to participate in the study, thus leaving a sample of 17 participants. During the first visit, players performed an incremental, ramp treadmill protocol for the assessment of players’ gaseous exchange threshold (GET) and VO2max. Players returned to the laboratory for a second time, following a minimum of 24 hours of recovery. On the second visit, players were required to run for 4min, at progressive sub-maximal speeds (8km/h, 80%GET and 95%GET), with 2 min passive recovery between speed increments. Players then completed the field test and 3 sterile 11 v 11 matches over the following 2 weeks with a minimum of 48 hours between each test. All laboratory and field testing were completed at the same time of day (± 2 hours), with room temperature, humidity and pressure corresponding to 20.5 ± 1.5ºC, 61.0 ± 1.4% and 1016 ± 3mmHg respectively, for laboratory testing.
Upon arrival to the laboratory and following the necessary screening procedures, participants were fitted with a Polar Heart rate monitor (Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland) and facemask (Hans Rudolph, Hans Rudolph, Kansas City, USA), which was connected to an online gas analysis system (Cortex Meta Max 3B, Cortex Biophysik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany). The online gas analyser was calibrated prior to each visit according to the manufacturer’s instructions, using a known gas concentration and a 3-L syringe for manual volume calibration of the ventilation sensors. Following a standardised 10min warm up and a full description of the test and safety procedures, participants began to run at a speed of 8km/h at a 1% incline [16] on a motorised treadmill (HP Cosmos, Pulsar, Sportgerate GmbH, Nussdorf, Germany). The speed of the treadmill was increased by 1km/h every two minutes, this continued until participants reached 90% of their age predicted heart rate max (207-(0.7 x age)) [17]. At this point, the treadmill speed remained constant whilst the incline of the treadmill was increased by 1% every minute until volitional exhaustion; this procedure was employed to avoid over-striding and potential early termination and inaccurate assessment of participant’s VO2max. This method has been successfully used before to elicit VO2max during treadmill running in young athletes [18]. Rolling 15 sec averages were calculated for the final minute of the test to verify if a plateau was present, with the highest 15 sec average during the test being regarded as VO2max [19]. It is well documented that children can exercise to exhaustion without exhibiting a VO2 plateau [20]. Nevertheless, test criteria for a maximal effort, were the achievement of at least two of the following three performance values: 1) respiratory exchange ratio (RER) above 1.00, 2) plateau in VO2 despite an increasing speed (< 2mL∙kg-1∙min-1; 10) 3) heart rate ±10 beats/min of age predicted maximal heart rate [20]. The VO2max protocol resulted in 100% percent of the participants reaching an RER value of greater than 1.00 and a heart rate value within ±10beats/min of age predicted maximal heart rate, while 88% of the participants presented a plateau in VO2 despite an increase in speed. As all players did fulfil two of the stated criteria, the term VO2max was preferred [21].
The gaseous exchange threshold (GET) was identified using the V-slope method (VE (ordinate), VO2 (abscissa). Two regression lines were created based upon the relationship between VCO2 and VO2. The intercept point between the two regression lines was then visually identified, with the VO2 value at the intercept (GETS) being extrapolated to the abscissa [22]. To identify the speed at GET, a regression equation was formulated for VO2 and running velocity, for each individual. The individual’s VO2 at GET was then inputted into the individual’s respective regression equation to calculate the running velocity at GET. The V-slope method has been shown to be a viable and reliable method for detecting and identifying the gaseous exchange threshold in children [23]. The GET was assessed by two individual researchers (experienced in the detection of GET), demonstrating 82% agreement (14 out of 17). For the remaining three participants, a third researcher was approached to verify the GET. Following this test, running velocities corresponding to 80% GET and 95% GET were calculated for the assessment of running economy. On the subsequent visit to the laboratory, and following a minimum of 24 hours recovery, participants’ RE was assessed at three progressive sub-maximal intensities (one absolute: 8km/h and two relatives: 80% GET and 95% GET exercise intensities), with 2 min passive recovery between each intensity. Prior to testing, participants were fitted with a Polar Heart rate monitor and face-mask, which was connected to a pre-calibrated online gas analysis system. Following a standardised 10min warm-up and a full description of the test procedures, participants began to run at the lowest exercise intensity (either 8km/hour the running velocity equivalent to 80% GET), with the gradient of the treadmill set at 1% [16]. Participants ran at this speed for 4 min, ensuring that a steady state was maintained for the final minute [21]. A 2min passive recovery was then permitted, in which participants’ heart rate recovered to pre-exercise levels. Pilot testing demonstrated that a 2min passive recovery was shown to provide sufficient time for players to recover to resting heart rate levels, ensuring there were no ensuing effects on the subsequent exercise bouts. During this recovery period, the treadmill speed was increased to the next progressive speed (higher intensity of 8km/h-1 or 80% GET). Again, participants exercised at this speed for 4min, attaining a steady state, before undertaking a further 2min recovery. Following the final 2min of passive recovery, participants completed another 4min period of sub-maximal running at the highest intensity (95% GET).
Extraction of the appropriate measures for assessing RE included applying rolling 15sec averages for the final minute of each sub-maximal exercise intensity to ensure that a steady state had been attained. It has been shown that male youth populations will attain a steady state following 3min of sub-maximal exercise [23]. Current results revealed that all participants (100%) attained a steady state (< 2mL•kg-1•min-1 (10), in the final minute of exercise) for each sub-maximal exercise intensity. Following the identification of a steady state, RE was defined as the average VO2 during the final minute of each exercise bout [21]. Relative oxygen consumption (VO2) was obtained for each exercise intensity as well as determinants of RE: minute ventilation (VE) and ventilatory equivalent (VEVO2). For the Yo-Yo IR1 test, cones were placed 20m apart, with a 5m recovery zone marked out at one end. The Yo-Yo IR1 test requires participants to run 2 x 20m shuttle runs at increasing speeds, interspersed with 10 seconds of active recovery. The pace of the test was controlled by audio signals emitted from a CD player (Sony CFD-V7, Sony, Tokyo, Japan). For the maximal Yo-Yo IR1 test, players were required to run until volitional termination of the test or, when they have twice failed to meet the designated cones in time with the audio signal, at which point they are removed from the test. The test score is the distance covered at the point they withdraw from the test. All players had previous experience of completing the Yo-Yo IR1 test and were therefore familiarised to the testing. During the test, players were allowed to consume fluids ad libitum. Previous evidence supports the use of the Yo-Yo IR1 test as a valid measure of soccer-specific fitness, particularly within youth populations [24].
For the assessment of participants’ performance during soccer match-play, three separate, sterile (controlled, replicable and include the same composition of players in the same positions) 11 v 11 matches were conducted and analysed using 10Hz GPS (Catapult, Melbourne, Australia) and Polar Heart rate monitors. Each match was conducted on the same third generation outdoor artificial pitch with the same pitch dimensions utilised within competitive match-play within this population (90 x 50m) and at the same time of day. Matches were comprised of 2 x 20min halves with a 5min rest interval between halves. The composition of the teams and positions remained the same for all three matches and each participant was assigned their own GPS for all matches. Matches were performed on three separate occasions with a minimum of 24hrs between matches.
Following each match, the GPS data was downloaded and analysed using Catapult Software (Catapult, Melbourne, Australia) and specially designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Following this, an average of the 3 games was calculated for each player for each variable. Data was recorded for the whole match, each 20min half and into successive 5min epochs (e.g. 0-5min, 1-6min, 2-7min, 3-8min, etc), to establish and quantify the peak 5min epoch, the subsequent 5 min epoch to the peak 5 min epoch and the mean of the cumulative 5min epochs throughout the match. These were then averaged over the 3 sterile matches. Previous research has used discrete 5min epochs (0-5min, 5-10min, etc.) to identify the peak 5min interval during soccer match-play [25]. However, the adoption of such criteria may result in missing the true peak 5min epoch, as this may occur between the pre-determined, discrete 5min epochs. Consequently, matches were analysed using successive 5min epochs (0-5min, 1-6min, 2-7min, etc.) for the identification of the most intense 5min epoch. Information recorded included total distance (TD), metres per min (m/min), relative high speed running distance metres (HSR), relative high speed efforts (HSReff), and relative very high speed running distance metres (VHSR), relative very high speed efforts (VHSReff) and relative sprint distance metres (S). Relative HSR running was regarded as distance covered above 50% of maximal linear velocity, relative VHSR was regarded as any distance covered above 70% of maximal linear velocity and relative Sprint as anything above 90% maximal linear velocity. The same thresholds were used for HSReff and VHSReff and an effort was regarded as any occurrence when such a speed was attained and sustained for greater than 0.2s. Maximal velocity was defined as the maximal velocity obtained during a 20m sprint from a standing start and obtained from the respective GPS devices which the player would wear during the competitive and sterile soccer matches.
A Shapiro Wilks test found the data to be normally distributed; therefore parametric statistical calculations were applied. Partial correlations, controlling for maturation, were performed on the whole sample to assess the relationship between measures of cardio-respiratory fitness and physical soccer-based measures. To aid interpretation of the results, confidence intervals (90%) for correlations were calculated and the magnitude of the correlations were determined using the modified scale by Hopkins [26] (r <0.1, trivial; 0.1-0.3, small; 0.3-0.5, moderate; 0.5-0.7, large; 0.7-0.9, very large; >0.9, nearly perfect; and 1 perfect).All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 (IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, IBM, Armonk, New York) and Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Excel 2013, Microsoft, Redmond, Washington) with the level of significance (alpha) set at 0.05.

Results

Partial correlations revealed significant relationships between VO2max (mL•kg-1•min-1) and measures associated with physical soccer performance (r = 0.54–0.88), while measures of velocity at GET were only shown to be related to total distance (r = 0.51, P <0.05) and VHSR (r = 0.51, P <0.05). Only %VO2max at an absolute sub-maximal intensity of 8km/h revealed significant inverse correlations with TD (r = -0.58, P <0.05) and the volume (r = -0.65, P <0.05) and percentage of HSR during soccer matchplay (r = -0.61, P <0.05) as well as the number of HSR (r = -0.58, P <0.05) and VHSR (r = -0.56, P <0.05) efforts. With regards to measures and determinants of RE, only VEVO2 at all sub-maximal exercise intensities were inversely related to the volume (m) and percentage (%) of VHSR performed during the sterile soccer matches as well as the number of VHSR efforts (Table 2). Partial correlations between GPS derived variables, obtained during players’ most intense 5min period of match-play (i.e. peak 5min epochs) and relative VO2max revealed no relationships, while velocity at GET was shown to be significantly related to measures of high intensity activity during players’ peak 5min epochs. However, partial correlations with the same GPS derived variables and relative VO2max (mL•kg-1•min-1) for the average 5min epochs (the mean average of the cumulative 5min epoch throughout match-play) were all significantly related. With regards to measures of running economy, again, only VEVO2 at all sub-maximal exercise intensities were inversely related to the volume (m), percentage (%) and efforts for VHSR, within the average 5min epochs (Table 3).
Note: VO2max = Maximal oxygen consumption; GET = Gaseous exchange threshold; VEVO2 = Ventilatory equivalent; RER = Respiratory exchange ratio; %HRmax = percentage of maximum heart rate; TD = Total Distance; HSR = High speed running; VHSR; Very high-speed running. Partial correlations were controlled for using self-assessed Tanner Stage values, * = significant correlation (P< 0.05).
Note: VO2max = Maximal oxygen consumption; GET = Gaseous exchange threshold; VEVO2 = Ventilatory equivalent; RER = Respiratory exchange ratio; %HRmax = percentage of maximum heart rate; TD = Total Distance; HSR = High speed running; VHSR; Very high-speed running. Partial correlations were controlled for using self-assessed Tanner Stage values, * = significant correlation (P< 0.05).

Discussion

The main findings of this study were 1) measures of relative VO2max were significantly related to multiple measures of physical performance that are associated with superior soccer matchplay; 2) RE (expressed as % VO2max) at an absolute intensity of 8 km/h was significantly related to measures of high intensity activities performed during youth soccer match-play; and 3) while traditional measures of RE (%VO2max), at relative intensities, were unrelated to measures of physical performance, a determinant of RE (VEVO2), at all sub-maximal treadmill intensities (absolute and relative) was inversely related to measures of VHSR (metres, percentage and efforts), but not HSR, during competitive soccer match-play. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to assess the relationship between multiple measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to physical soccer performance outcome measures, obtained during competitive soccer matchplay, in a group of highly trained youth players. Current findings support research that states measures of relative VO2max (ml. kg-1.min-1) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance are related to measures of physical performance during soccer match-play [27]. Present results found that VO2max and measures of HSR (HSR metres: r = 0.73, P< 0.05; HSR%: r = 0.70, P< 0.05 and HSR efforts: r = 0.74, P< 0.05) and VHSR (VHSR metres r = 0.57, P< 0.05; VHSR%: r = 0.54, P< 0.05 and VHSR efforts: r = 0.62, P< 0.05), obtained during competitive soccer match-play were significantly related. Indeed, the contribution of aerobic energy supply has been shown to compensate for reductions in the energy supply from anaerobic metabolism during repeated sprints [28]. As a result, an enhanced ability to utilise oxidative energy pathways during high-intensity intermittent exercise may result in a greater accumulation, maintenance and frequency of high-intensity activities, thus maximising a players opportunity to compete effectively.
Similar to the present study, Krustrup et al. [9] reported significant relationships between measures of relative VO2max and high-intensity distance covered during soccer match-play (r = 0.81), in elite female soccer players. Rebelo et al. [10], however, reported no significant relationships between measures of VO2max and time spent in absolute speed zones during soccer-match play (r =-0.13-0.25; P>0.05). However, it must be noted that Rebelo et al. [10] assessed players’ physical performance during soccer match-play using time-motion analysis, one individual at a time and over a variety of games, thus exacerbating the issues of inter-match variability associated with assessing physical soccer performance during soccer match-play [29]. In the current study, all players were assessed simultaneously, using GPS analysis and during sterile soccer matches, in order to account for the complexities of variance involved in assessing physical performance during soccer match-play.
The current results demonstrate that traditional measures of RE (VO2 or %VO2max) when exercising at an absolute intensity (8km/h) are related to measures of physical performance during soccer match-play. However, when RE is measured at a relative (80%GET and 95%GET) exercise intensity, traditional measures of RE are not related to variables associated with superior physical soccer performance during match-play, within a group of highly trained youth soccer players. The use of RE as a measure to assess soccer-specific fitness is rarely adopted, this is probably due to the high-intensity, intermittent characteristics of soccer match-play. Despite this, research has advocated the need to improve soccer players’ levels of RE via training [11]. In support of this, the current results demonstrated that a superior RE during an absolute intensity of 8 km/h was significantly related to measures of HSR during soccer match-play. The current findings, however, may be a result of the different internal load which an absolute intensity of 8 km/h equates to for each player, although such a finding may still be relevant as physical performance during competitive match-play does not account for players’ relative fitness levels, maturity status or size (e.g. leg length) either. Consequently, the use of absolute sub-maximal intensities may be preferable when utilising traditional measures of RE to distinguish between physical performance during youth soccer match-play. Conversely, when relative exercise intensities (80% and 95% GET) were employed to assess RE, no relationships between traditional measures of RE and physical measures of performance during soccer matchplay were evident. When, however, alternative determinants of RE are evaluated with respect to their relationship with physical soccer performance different relationships emerge.
While results from the present study provide little support for relationships between measurements of RE and physical performance during soccer-match-play, a significant inverse relationship between VEVO2 and measures associated with physical soccer performance was demonstrated. Work by Franch et al. [13] reported an average decrement of 11 L.min-1, in VE, while exercising at an intensity equivalent to 85% VO2max, following 6 weeks of intensive endurance-based interval training. In addition, these same authors reported that other determinants of running economy such as: stride length, stride frequency, respiratory exchange ratio and muscle fibre distribution were unaltered. As a result, the responsiveness of VE to high intensity intermittent training, like that which is experienced during soccer, may have a positive impact on physical performance during soccer matchplay; with players at a higher level demonstrating an enhanced ventilatory efficiency (VEVO2) for a given exercise intensity [14] and therefore increased levels of physical performance during soccer match-play.
There were some limitations associated with this study. Firstly, correlation analyses do not infer causality. The ‘thirdvariable problem’ must be considered, as other measured or un-measured variables may affect the results. In an attempt to account for this, partial correlations were employed to control for the effects of maturation. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess maturity status within this study should also be considered. Indeed, the Tanner stage method of estimating maturity status does not provide information on the point at which a player entered a particular stage of maturation or how long an individual has been in a particular stage of maturation. Finally, relative thresholds were used to assess players’ physical performance during soccer match-play. While this partly accounts for differences in growth and maturation, future research may look to examine the impact of such relationships when utilising both relative and absolute speed thresholds within the GPS analysis, when evaluating physical performance during soccer match-play. Such research will allow practitioners and researchers to establish the most appropriate methods for quantifying youth players’ physical performance in both competition and training.

Practical Implications

The current paper looks to extend and improve upon existing research by providing an insight into the extent to which measures of cardio-respiratory fitness impact upon measures of physical performance during youth soccer matchplay. An improved understanding of the extent to which specific measures impact upon physical performance during youth soccer match-play will enable both sports practitioners and coaches to devise and implement training practices which are aligned to performance. Specifically, current results demonstrate that measures of relative VO2 peak are related to measures of physical performance. Therefore, measures of relative VO2 peakmay be an appropriate means for assessing and monitoring youth players’ physical development and player profiling, thus aiding in the identification of age appropriate training objectives for each player’s individual development. Finally, the potential to delay the onset of respiratory muscle fatigue, during high intensity intermittent exercise provides interesting results. A delay in the onset of respiratory muscle fatigue may result in improvements in the amount of activity that can be performed at higher intensities, during soccer match-play. Consequently, sports practitioners may wish to promote the use of inspiratory muscle training as a concurrent training aid to supplement training outcomes.

Conclusion

Results of the present study reinforces evidence that suggests an enhanced VO2max is associated with superior soccer performance, in a group of highly trained youth soccer players, with a superior aerobic capacity allowing for an improved maintenance of high intensity activities during soccer match-play. Strong correlations between VO2max and physical performance during soccer match-play (high intensity activities) emphasises the need for high levels of aerobic capacity in highly trained youth soccer players. Moreover, while no relationships between traditional measures of RE and physical measures associated with soccer performance were evident, results provided potential support towards the implications of ventilatory efficiency (VEVO2) and its impact upon very high intensity activities (VHSR metres and efforts) during soccer match-play. However, further research should look to investigate the direct impact of ventilatory efficiency on measures associated with physical soccer performance during competitive match-play.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank all the participants involved in the study for their committed participation. The authors would also like to thank the technical staff in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Staffordshire University for their excellent support. The authors would also like to declare that there was no provision of external funding or conflicts of interest in the completion of this study.
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2020.02.22 06:19 Enter_Laughing Best value areas to live for English Local Authority Districts (in terms of Median house prices & levels of deprivation)

For 317 Local Authority Districts in England, I've produced a table of the best value LSOA for each taking into account the level of deprivation and median house prices.
This gives each of 32,844 LSOAs (Lower Layer Super Output Area) used in the "English indices of deprivation 2019" a score based on the inverse of their rank (a higher Deprivation Score is better), and each LSOA a score based on their relative rank in terms of their median house price value (a higher House Price Score is better), then multiplies the two together to give an Overall Score.
The LSOA code will be meaningless to everybody, but it refers to a specific geographical area that typically has a population of around 1500 people (no more than 10,000).
Arguably a big flaw is that the scores do not scale in proportion to their significance.
I've included a link to the full spreadsheet with all 32,844 LSOAs (4MBs in size) here: http://www.filedropper.com/lsoasranked
Note there are 803 LSOAs that have no recent house price data - I gave them all a bottom ranking for house price just to get them out of the way.
You can find the LSOA for a specific post code if you enter the post code here: https://www.doogal.co.uk/ShowMap.php Under: Lower layer super output area
Sources: Office for National Statistics. (2019). HPSSA Dataset 46: Median price paid for residential properties by LSOA, 2019 (Table 1). London: Office for National Statistics.
Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government. (2019). English indices of deprivation 2019 (File 5: scores for the indices of deprivation). London: Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government.

LSOA code (2011) Local Authority District name (2019) Median House Price (Year ending June 2019) Deprivation Score House Price Score Overall Score
E01024997 Fylde £75,000 0.888 0.980 0.870
E01008479 North Tyneside £103,975 0.914 0.928 0.848
E01022368 Stroud £116,450 0.926 0.898 0.832
E01009799 Dudley £95,500 0.864 0.943 0.815
E01012246 Stockton-on-Tees £109,000 0.878 0.918 0.806
E01020605 County Durham £130,000 0.925 0.857 0.793
E01012182 Redcar and Cleveland £137,500 0.951 0.829 0.788
E01025468 West Lancashire £133,000 0.921 0.845 0.778
E01019640 Erewash £145,000 0.961 0.807 0.776
E01025695 Charnwood £146,250 0.963 0.801 0.771
E01012957 East Riding of Yorkshire £112,000 0.845 0.910 0.769
E01033534 South Derbyshire £107,000 0.833 0.922 0.768
E01029198 South Somerset £115,000 0.837 0.904 0.757
E01013277 North Lincolnshire £123,500 0.844 0.879 0.741
E01027403 Northumberland £163,000 0.989 0.744 0.736
E01029791 Staffordshire Moorlands £130,000 0.846 0.857 0.726
E01018502 Cheshire East £157,000 0.940 0.765 0.720
E01032546 Darlington £130,000 0.835 0.857 0.716
E01025345 Ribble Valley £162,500 0.959 0.747 0.716
E01032706 Swindon £144,500 0.884 0.808 0.714
E01033184 Richmondshire £110,900 0.780 0.912 0.711
E01032685 Salford £157,475 0.927 0.764 0.708
E01024970 Chorley £155,000 0.913 0.774 0.707
E01026294 South Kesteven £160,000 0.930 0.756 0.704
E01008199 Gateshead £110,000 0.767 0.916 0.703
E01006312 Wigan £148,975 0.884 0.794 0.702
E01028235 Mansfield £132,000 0.826 0.849 0.701
E01026187 North Kesteven £164,750 0.946 0.741 0.701
E01019124 Allerdale £160,000 0.924 0.756 0.699
E01019288 Copeland £152,500 0.894 0.781 0.698
E01008724 Sunderland £169,950 0.964 0.723 0.698
E01011113 Kirklees £158,500 0.912 0.760 0.694
E01029536 Newcastle-under-Lyme £145,500 0.863 0.803 0.693
E01008292 Newcastle upon Tyne £132,750 0.816 0.845 0.690
E01033107 Kingston upon Hull, City of £150,000 0.871 0.791 0.689
E01013194 North East Lincolnshire £145,500 0.857 0.803 0.688
E01007896 Sheffield £160,000 0.902 0.756 0.682
E01010947 Calderdale £167,000 0.932 0.731 0.681
E01025600 Wyre £146,500 0.849 0.801 0.679
E01012609 Blackburn with Darwen £148,000 0.853 0.797 0.679
E01019255 Carlisle £143,250 0.836 0.810 0.678
E01018554 Cheshire West and Chester £173,500 0.954 0.709 0.676
E01011971 Hartlepool £148,000 0.846 0.797 0.674
E01029709 Stafford £180,000 0.975 0.688 0.671
E01025039 Hyndburn £160,000 0.887 0.756 0.671
E01019462 Amber Valley £165,975 0.913 0.733 0.669
E01025406 South Ribble £138,000 0.809 0.827 0.669
E01007475 Doncaster £142,500 0.822 0.813 0.669
E01027944 Ashfield £137,000 0.804 0.831 0.668
E01011812 Wakefield £162,500 0.892 0.747 0.666
E01014123 Telford and Wrekin £123,000 0.755 0.880 0.665
E01011306 Leeds £146,000 0.827 0.802 0.664
E01025255 Preston £170,313 0.924 0.717 0.662
E01007752 Rotherham £140,000 0.806 0.821 0.662
E01013514 Derby £162,498 0.883 0.747 0.660
E01012048 Middlesbrough £142,250 0.810 0.814 0.659
E01028177 Gedling £151,000 0.840 0.784 0.659
E01007428 Barnsley £134,000 0.779 0.843 0.657
E01029665 South Staffordshire £169,750 0.904 0.724 0.654
E01019790 North East Derbyshire £165,000 0.881 0.740 0.652
E01006841 St. Helens £137,500 0.786 0.829 0.651
E01024862 Burnley £110,000 0.709 0.916 0.650
E01028097 Broxtowe £180,000 0.943 0.688 0.649
E01007308 Wirral £135,000 0.772 0.840 0.649
E01014265 Stoke-on-Trent £151,375 0.827 0.783 0.648
E01026160 Lincoln £144,000 0.796 0.809 0.644
E01009559 Coventry £129,975 0.746 0.858 0.640
E01029419 East Staffordshire £158,000 0.839 0.762 0.640
E01010296 Walsall £170,000 0.885 0.722 0.639
E01026402 West Lindsey £169,950 0.882 0.723 0.638
E01033103 North West Leicestershire £189,750 0.969 0.658 0.637
E01025839 Hinckley and Bosworth £145,000 0.789 0.807 0.637
E01005572 Rochdale £158,500 0.835 0.760 0.635
E01028361 Rushcliffe £189,750 0.964 0.658 0.634
E01027623 Hambleton £194,000 0.986 0.643 0.634
E01027565 Craven £182,500 0.933 0.678 0.633
E01008627 South Tyneside £133,000 0.748 0.845 0.632
E01028061 Bassetlaw £145,000 0.783 0.807 0.632
E01027845 Scarborough £170,000 0.875 0.722 0.632
E01020146 South Hams £173,000 0.889 0.710 0.631
E01004803 Bolton £175,000 0.893 0.706 0.631
E01012555 Warrington £164,975 0.849 0.740 0.629
E01027879 Selby £174,000 0.884 0.708 0.626
E01019540 Chesterfield £168,000 0.859 0.728 0.626
E01033528 Shropshire £148,750 0.788 0.794 0.626
E01019478 Bolsover £167,500 0.856 0.730 0.625
E01022427 Tewkesbury £181,000 0.911 0.682 0.621
E01006097 Trafford £183,000 0.917 0.677 0.621
E01015108 Plymouth £162,000 0.826 0.748 0.618
E01029377 Cannock Chase £167,498 0.844 0.730 0.616
E01025365 Rossendale £129,000 0.716 0.860 0.616
E01025776 Harborough £188,250 0.929 0.660 0.613
E01019753 High Peak £155,000 0.790 0.774 0.612
E01012374 Halton £180,000 0.886 0.688 0.610
E01025650 Blaby £196,000 0.958 0.636 0.609
E01005052 Bury £175,000 0.863 0.706 0.609
E01005418 Oldham £160,000 0.803 0.756 0.607
E01026263 South Holland £170,500 0.846 0.717 0.606
E01026053 East Lindsey £138,500 0.734 0.826 0.606
E01031040 North Warwickshire £146,500 0.756 0.801 0.605
E01032842 Basingstoke and Deane £177,500 0.868 0.695 0.604
E01025165 Lancaster £170,000 0.836 0.722 0.604
E01033752 Liverpool £156,250 0.786 0.767 0.603
E01010706 Bradford £165,000 0.814 0.740 0.602
E01028288 Newark and Sherwood £159,250 0.792 0.758 0.600
E01027791 Ryedale £179,000 0.868 0.690 0.599
E01022340 Gloucester £168,500 0.817 0.727 0.594
E01026035 Boston £163,648 0.799 0.742 0.593
E01015626 Peterborough £148,000 0.743 0.797 0.592
E01029894 Babergh £204,500 0.962 0.614 0.591
E01025991 Oadby and Wigston £190,000 0.899 0.656 0.590
E01019347 South Lakeland £180,500 0.863 0.682 0.589
E01032324 Worcester £195,000 0.917 0.641 0.588
E01006062 Tameside £191,000 0.897 0.651 0.584
E01007070 Sefton £179,950 0.847 0.689 0.584
E01027075 East Northamptonshire £207,500 0.962 0.606 0.583
E01027715 Harrogate £215,000 0.983 0.587 0.577
E01019334 Eden £175,000 0.813 0.706 0.574
E01019622 Derbyshire Dales £190,000 0.874 0.656 0.574
E01025214 Pendle £150,750 0.727 0.784 0.571
E01010565 Wolverhampton £159,000 0.750 0.759 0.569
E01031879 Wiltshire £196,000 0.888 0.636 0.565
E01021560 Chelmsford £197,500 0.893 0.632 0.564
E01013411 York £200,000 0.902 0.626 0.564
E01014821 North Somerset £165,475 0.766 0.734 0.562
E01032865 Leicester £175,000 0.795 0.706 0.561
E01029848 Tamworth £192,500 0.867 0.647 0.561
E01025893 Melton £184,000 0.831 0.675 0.561
E01029263 Somerset West and Taunton £194,000 0.871 0.643 0.560
E01014087 Herefordshire, County of £158,000 0.734 0.762 0.559
E01030078 Mid Suffolk £206,000 0.919 0.608 0.559
E01032231 Redditch £188,000 0.846 0.661 0.559
E01019185 Barrow-in-Furness £153,000 0.717 0.779 0.558
E01014874 South Gloucestershire £212,000 0.937 0.592 0.555
E01029495 Lichfield £182,250 0.812 0.679 0.551
E01031112 Nuneaton and Bedworth £191,000 0.839 0.651 0.546
E01026472 Breckland £178,000 0.784 0.693 0.544
E01027125 Kettering £212,498 0.919 0.591 0.543
E01022720 Fareham £220,000 0.946 0.574 0.543
E01032197 Malvern Hills £174,500 0.764 0.707 0.540
E01032817 Ashford £138,225 0.651 0.826 0.538
E01017190 Southampton £165,000 0.726 0.740 0.537
E01027008 Daventry £184,000 0.792 0.675 0.534
E01005811 Stockport £215,000 0.906 0.587 0.532
E01030292 East Suffolk £220,500 0.935 0.568 0.531
E01031742 Mid Sussex £210,000 0.885 0.600 0.531
E01032448 Wyre Forest £192,000 0.818 0.648 0.530
E01009976 Sandwell £137,500 0.640 0.829 0.530
E01032885 Solihull £216,250 0.912 0.581 0.530
E01019925 East Devon £215,000 0.899 0.587 0.527
E01026644 King's Lynn and West Norfolk £222,500 0.931 0.565 0.526
E01026519 Broadland £185,000 0.783 0.672 0.526
E01020450 Dorset £213,000 0.889 0.590 0.524
E01026815 Norwich £233,500 0.981 0.533 0.523
E01028465 Cherwell £235,000 0.982 0.531 0.521
E01018201 Huntingdonshire £205,000 0.840 0.613 0.515
E01020058 Mid Devon £215,000 0.878 0.587 0.515
E01033114 South Cambridgeshire £237,475 0.985 0.523 0.515
E01020270 Teignbridge £210,000 0.857 0.600 0.514
E01028756 Vale of White Horse £202,500 0.831 0.618 0.514
E01020964 Eastbourne £175,000 0.726 0.706 0.513
E01033410 Nottingham £155,250 0.666 0.769 0.513
E01027337 Wellingborough £165,000 0.692 0.740 0.512
E01031125 Rugby £188,000 0.774 0.661 0.511
E01032363 Wychavon £235,500 0.967 0.526 0.509
E01027264 South Northamptonshire £214,500 0.865 0.588 0.508
E01006476 Knowsley £176,500 0.726 0.698 0.507
E01020361 Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole £169,950 0.698 0.723 0.505
E01031672 Horsham £230,000 0.924 0.544 0.503
E01018796 Cornwall £219,500 0.874 0.575 0.503
E01033059 Bromsgrove £232,500 0.936 0.535 0.501
E01022123 Cheltenham £200,000 0.799 0.626 0.500
E01021438 Brentwood £240,000 0.961 0.517 0.497
E01013800 Rutland £218,250 0.862 0.577 0.497
E01033045 West Suffolk £223,000 0.881 0.563 0.496
E01023649 North Hertfordshire £200,000 0.792 0.626 0.495
E01032957 Aylesbury Vale £218,000 0.856 0.578 0.494
E01014470 Bath and North East Somerset £212,000 0.835 0.592 0.494
E01023141 Rushmoor £146,000 0.614 0.802 0.492
E01022257 Forest of Dean £202,000 0.790 0.619 0.489
E01024213 Dover £220,000 0.851 0.574 0.488
E01029033 Mendip £195,000 0.759 0.641 0.487
E01012718 Blackpool £151,000 0.619 0.784 0.485
E01027148 Northampton £223,000 0.861 0.563 0.485
E01016770 Milton Keynes £168,750 0.666 0.726 0.484
E01029115 Sedgemoor £235,000 0.908 0.531 0.482
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E01001874 Hammersmith and Fulham £395,000 0.348 0.187 0.065
E01000003 City of London £625,000 0.454 0.047 0.022
submitted by Enter_Laughing to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]


2020.01.15 03:38 gaygaythrowaways How I evolved from a proud pit bull owner to an advocate of BSL: A Guide

ETA: BSL stands for Breed Specific Legislation
I was inspired to make this post by the new flairs! Anyone who is visiting this sub and having a difficult time accepting that pro-BSL sources are legitimate could benefit from reading this, imo.
I see a lot of people post about how they believe any statistics that support BSL are made up, DogsBite is some horrendous and notoriously biased source, how other dog attacks are being reported incorrectly as pit bull attacks, etc etc. Just a lot of the same retorts being thrown around defensively, and insistence that anyone who is pro-BSL is uneducated and that there is no way to determine whether these fatal attacks and disfiguring maulings are truly pit bulls.
And I wanted to say that I get it. I was in their shoes just a few short years ago! I grew up with a rescued pit bull as our family pet and she went her entire life without so much as snapping at a person or another dog. My experience owning a different rescued pit bull myself who ended up being dog and child aggressive was the catalyst for me delving into my own research, and admittedly at first my research attempts were biased toward trying to prove to myself that it was NOT the breed. There must be other factors at play, these dogs must be misidentified! I slowly began to realize that is not the case, and am now a full proponent of BSL and I am strongly against ever having a pit bull type dog around other animals, children, or the elderly. I personally will never trust a pit bull again and carry a knife to protect myself and my dog in the case of an attack. Because the statistics are NOT made up. It's not fake and it's not being blown out of proportion! So I wanted to share the steps that I took (while I still owned my pit bull, no less!) to educate myself and come to the only logical conclusion: pit bulls are more dangerous than other dogs.
1. Owning an aggressive pit bull, having a friend or pet attacked by a pit bull, or being attacked by a pit bull yourself.
I think this is self-explanatory and is the fastest way for any logical and empathetic person to accept that pit bulls are more dangerous than other dogs. I know many people will continue to blame the victim and make excuses, but many people do change their tune after witnessing or experiencing a mauling.
2. Look at the photographs of dogs involved in fatal maulings shared by DogsBite
I'd say this was a real game-changer for me. I had heard and read over and over again that all of these dogs were being misidentified, and I was partially convinced that there were killer labradors running around who were being mislabeled as pit bulls. Looking at the actual photographic evidence - for which sources are consistently provided - really opened my eyes. The dogs all look the same. Am I saying I could tell based upon the pictures that each one was a purebred APBT (American Pit Bull Terrier)? Of course not. But there is no denying that the dogs in these photos, which have been provided for the majority of fatal maulings over the past few years, are mostly the same TYPE of dog. And DogsBite does share photographs of fatally attacking NON-bully breeds as well, so there was no bias that I could discern while browsing these photos.
3. Watch videos of pit bulls attacking people and dogs
Yes - any dog can bite. If you're a dog owner I'm sure you've seen lots of dog scuffles and perhaps some dog bites that ended up with trips to the vet or doctor. It does happen, and this is across the spectrum of breeds! But if you watch videos of pit bull attacks that involve pit bulls walking out of elevators and pouncing onto smaller dogs, or latching onto the body parts of small children, it's very difficult to pretend this normal dog behavior. Watch their tails wagging, heads shaking as they clamp onto the body of another dog or someone's child. Compare this to other dog fights or bites you have seen. Where are the ample signs of aggression that you claim everyone is missing? Many videos show pit bulls running up to people and dogs they had not been interacting with to attack. Have you seen this happen with other dogs? Collies? Golden retrievers? Is it possible - sure I suppose. But have you seen it? Do you really think people are just hiding away all their videos of gruesome collie attacks for fun?
4. Do your own research on dog attack news stories
"The media is biased against pit bulls!" is a favorite mantra, as I've learned. "The dogs involved were probably abused and were probably not even pits!". Fair enough - you can't trust the media at face value. If you are unwilling to trust the work DogsBite and other pro-BSL websites put into getting factual, evidence-based information about news-worthy attacks then do it yourself. I did! Find the dog owner involved on Facebook and see if they own pit bulls or chihuahuas. Very often you'll see people happily cuddling their pit bulls who are wearing fancy collars and appear well fed and groomed. You don't need to believe the sources that have already compiled the information - that's just there for ease of access. You can do it yourself! I researched so many fatal and disfiguring cases assuming I'd find dirty secrets about abused dogs and misidentified breeds to prove that pit bulls were safe - but I didn't.
5. Read forums and websites of pro-pit bull organizations and "gamedog" communities
I am NOT a proponent of dog fighting. But - people who use their pit bulls for dog fighting and hog catching do not sugarcoat the genetic tendencies of the breed. I have visited the websites of many APBT breeders and they are overwhelmingly honest about the predisposition for dog aggression. Many breeders and those who use pit bulls for work (hog catch dogs) need to keep their dogs chained or kenneled separately so they don't kill each other, and they will state this honestly for the world to see. Pro-pit bull, pro-rescue websites also dive into the topic of dog aggression and selectivity on their websites! Why would organizations that are promoting the adoption of bully breeds want to lie about dog aggression?
6. Read the American Staffordshire Terrier AKC Breed Standard
The AKC is the American Kennel Club. Directly from the AKC Website, it states that "It must be noted that dog aggression can develop even in well-socialized Am Staffs; an AmStaff should never under any circumstances be left alone with other dogs."
7. Browse medical literature regarding dog bites requiring hospitalization
A lot of pro-pit bull folks talk a lot about wanting to have peer-reviewed sources backing up pro-BSL claims. They are out there! Within medical literature there is a plethora of information about which breeds of dogs are being reported when people (many of these are children's hospitals as well) are hospitalized for dog attacks. You can find many of these within this sub's sidebar under "Research and Data".
submitted by gaygaythrowaways to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.01.02 07:05 OverwatchPerfTracker Overwatch Performance Tracker v.1.5.0 (Back for 2020!)

I had a wall of text written out but then I said "F*** it. get to the point."
So here it is! The New and Improved, Fully Updated and Future Proofed, The Original and Best!
The Overwatch Performance Tracker! (v.1.5.0)
Edit (04/01/2020) : The version available has a few issues that are being resolved as we speak. You should still be able to track your games but some of the stats (and LibreOffice/OpenOffice compatibility) may be flawed. Follow me on twitter and I'll send a tweet once the new version is out. The new version will also support Role Queues within the same sheet.
Now for the obligatory wall of text for those who've never heard of this before.

What is the Overwatch Performance Tracker?

It's an excel workbook that allows a Competitive Overwatch player to track their stats over the course of a competitive season.

Will I be banned for using it?

Not at all! Since it's only an excel file, there are no hooks or screen-grabbing software installed.

But wait, how does it track my stats then?

Simple, it does it the old-fashioned way. You manually input a limited set of data such as your party size, the heroes you used, the map you played on, and your SR at the end of a game. The rest of the data is automatically filled out from that. And your statistics are derived from all that data.

Sounds complicated. Why should I bother?

You're right, it does sound a little intimidating at first but as I and other past users can attest to, it's simple enough to get the hang of, and once you're in the habit of using it, it's quick to input the relevant data. Why should you bother? You want to get better, don't you? Of course you do! Why else would you be playing Competitive? The Overwatch Performance Tracker allows you to collect information from your matches that you won't get anywhere else. It will give you such detailed information as how often you win and lose with a particular hero on a particular map, or what day and at what time, you win most. It will even make recommendations for what hero to play on a particular map based on past performance. Always felt you did well with Mei but never gave her a proper chance? Well the Overwatch Performance Tracker will put your mind at ease.
Hey, it's worth a shot at least, right?

Sounds a bit like XXXXXX's Performance Tracker. Did you copy it?

You may not believe this but many of the Performance Tracking spreadsheets, including those on Google Sheets, are derived from my original basic spreadsheet. That's right! If anyone has plagiarized anyone, it wasn't me. I started with a blank file (originally on Google Sheets), and the OPT grew to what it is today. Others have updated my earlier sheets, and some have even credited me. Since at the time my spreadsheet was already far better (having evolved into a sizeable workbook), and since I ended up going on a hiatus, I just left them at it. I will say this though: a certain reptilian user outright stole my original sheet, passed it off as their own, and never once credited me even after being called out. But hey! They continued to add the new heroes and maps so whatever. Still, it did sting a little.

Ok, I've downloaded it. How do I use it?

First off, make sure you have a program that can read .xlsx files. If you have Microsoft Excel, that's perfect, since that's what it was created in and tested the most on. If you don't have Microsoft Excel, you can download a free Office Suite such as Libre Office, OpenOffice, or WPS Office. Keep in mind however that the workbook has been designed in Microsoft Excel and that's where it will work best. I'll do my best to sort out incompatibilities with other programs but I can't guarantee I'll be able to achieve 1:1 compatibility.
Once you have a program that can open the Overwatch Performance Tracker, load up the file in that program. I've added notes all over the place that will guide you through using the workbook and I'll continue to add more as I update it.
For those of you using a program other than Microsoft Excel, please let me know if you have trouble viewing these notes and I'll find a fix/alternative solution.

What are you plans for the future?

Well, now that I have more free time on my hands, not to mention a newfound drive to make something of this little project of mine, I want to really bring the Overwatch Performance Tracker to the next level. You could say that it's my New Year's Resolution! The first step in that plan is what you're reading now - delivering the updated Overwatch Performance Tracker to the Reddit Overwatch community that helped make it what it is today. Next, I'd like to start work on a website that would serve the same purpose and remove the need for (and peculiarities of) Microsoft Excel and other Office Suites. That website will feature an account-based user experience where users can track their data over multiple seasons with an easy-to-use interface. The goal is to have a site where users can track and compare their performance over multiple seasons and against other users. It's something I had wanted to do way back when I was first actively updating the workbook, and that desire has never left me. Now that I have more time to focus on my passion projects, this is no.1 on that list.

This is where you ask for money, isn't it? -_-

Yup! I'm gonna be shamelessly honest here. While I'm all for releasing updates to the Overwatch Performance Tracker to the community at no cost, I can't justify a project like I have planned unless I can fund the development of it. Rent needs to get paid, my 30kg American Staffordshire has got to eat, and my girlfriend don't want no scrub. Any support will go a long way towards keeping me motivated to keep the Overwatch Performance Tracker updated and develop the webapp that I've been imagining for the last three years.
But it's entirely up to you. Feel free to follow me here on Reddit, or follow me on twitter(@OWPerfTracker) for updates on fixes, new features, and updated versions.
And if you do feel like my hard work and my vision deserves support, you can visit my Patreon account at patreon.com/OverwatchPerformanceTracker
Finally, I want to say Thank You to everyone who sent me messages over the years expressing interest in an updated version of the Overwatch Performance Tracker. You made sure I never forgot about it and you're a big part of why I'm here today with an updated version to kick off the new season in 2020!
All feedback is appreciated. I'm finishing this post at 6am after some good old-fashioned crunch time so if there are any issues, be patient while I get some shut-eye and I'll be right on it once I'm up again in a few hours.
submitted by OverwatchPerfTracker to OverwatchUniversity [link] [comments]


2019.11.09 19:24 depressedandupset134 [Discussion] Why do people accept dogsbite.org as a credible source?

I’ve had a few conversations with people who brought up dogsbite.org to prove that pitbulls are statically more aggressive than other breeds. I’m sure you’ve seen those statistics, but anytime I point out that dogsbite.org is full of inaccurate and biased information, I get downvoted on reddit or people in real life refuse to believe it and just think your full of shit.
Here is a comment I sent to someone I met at the dog park who was a clear “ban pitbulls” person.
Here's an article that covers some of the issues with dogsbite
https://www.avma.org/news/javmanews/pages/171115a.aspx
Their data is incorrect. ANY data about fatal dog attacks is incorrect, because studies have repeatedly proven that breed identification by witnesses, shelter workers and veterinarians is often inaccurate. Unless a study has been done where the dogs responsible for attacks were DNA tested and proven to be bully mixes (there hasn't been a study like this), then there's no way to prove which dog breed/breeds is responsible for the highest number of fatal dog attacks.
PIT BULL is not a breed of dog. I wish people would stop using the term altogether, honestly, because it's so incredibly misleading. BULLY BREEDS are a group of dog breeds, that include the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Bulldog, the American Staffordshire Terrier, Bull Mastiff, Bull Terrier, Cane Corso, Dogo Argentino, English Bulldog, French Bulldog, Olde English Bulldogge and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
So when you're blaming attacks on "Pit Bulls", and discussing BSL, what breed of dog are you referring to? If you want to ban "bully breeds and mixes", then you're going to have to include French Bulldogs, Bull Mastiffs and English Bulldogs in that group.
A study done by Dr. James Serpell and team says the following:
Dog bite statistics are potentially misleading for several reasons: (a) most dog bites go unreported unless medical attention is sought (which may be more likely with larger breeds that have the ability to inflict more serious injury); (b) the total number of dogs of a given breed in the local community is seldom known, so the degree to which that breed is over-represented among reported dog bites is usually undetermined (Lockwood, 1995; however see Gershman et al., 1994; Guy et al., 2001b; Reisner et al., 2005); and (c) in many cases the breed of dog involved cannot be verified (Wright, 1991).
Breed-specific data on aggression derived from behavior clinic/consultant caseloads are also likely to be unrepresentative. Because of the greater risk of injury posed by larger, more powerful dogs, owners of these dogs are more likely to seek professional help in dealing with canine aggression. In addition, dog owners dealing with aggression directed toward themselves or members of their family are more likely to seek professional help compared to pet owners whose dogs are aggressive toward unfamiliar people or animals (Bamberger and Houpt, 2006).
This study grouped the four bully breeds usually described as "Pit Bulls" into one category and used CBARQ scores to analyze breed groups for likelihood of aggression towards owners, strangers and strange dogs. The breeds most likely to display stranger-directed aggression were Dachshund, Doberman Pinscher, Rottweiler, Yorkshire Terrier and Poodle. The breeds most likely to display owner-directed aggression were Basset Hound, Beagle, Chihuahua, American Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, English Springer Spaniel and Jack Russell Terrier. The breeds most likely to display dog-directed aggression were Akita, Boxer, Australian Cattle Dog, German Shepherd, "Pit Bull" (the bully breed group), Chihuahua, Dachshund, English Springer Spaniel, Jack Russell Terrier and West Highland White Terrier.
Don’t I have a point here? And yet he just replied and said I was brainwashed “monster dog” owner (don’t even own a pitbull and never will). He also said none of those studies are credible, and dogsbite.org is where the real facts are.
I don’t see how anyone could think dogsbite.org is solid research to use in an informative discussion. If you’re going to hate pitbulls, at least give a good source for it.
This is also the person who showed me a meme with a girl and her pitbull and how she was a “pibble lover.” He then said what made it hilarious is that she was eventually mauled by her own dogs.... Like what the fuck is hilarious about that. That’s such a psychotic thing to say.
submitted by depressedandupset134 to dogs [link] [comments]


2019.11.06 18:49 denommonkey Career progression help needed

Short intro about myself:
From India. I have MSc in Information Systems from Staffordshire University, UK and a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science engineering.
I completed my bachelor’s in 2013 after which I got into a 6 months training course in CCNA and Active directory. Landed a job in May 2014 at one of the largest oil production companies on the planet as an IT technician. Got promoted after 7 months to a position of Team Leader. I left the job in November 2016 and moved to UK for postgraduate studies. Graduated with distinction in June 2018 and after many interviews and rejections finally landed a job back in India in November 2018 as an IWMS Consultant at the Indian office of a Dallas based IT company. The product I am working is an IWMS geared towards store lifecycle management, GIS, project management and lease management. I have been working here for almost a year now and have been involved in Software implementation projects for several major clients such as Canada Goose, Darden, Sterling Jewelers and so on. I also have 4 junior consultants working under me now.
The question: I have learnt a lot of stuff over the last year like GIS, project management, data integrations, ETL, PL/SQL, JSON and so on. I am now wondering what should be the next ideal step for me. I want to get a better paying job and hopefully move out of India cause we get paid peanuts over here. I am also wondering whether I should stay in my current company as my CEO is planning to promote me to the position of manager in a couple of months. I want to stay involved in the technical side of things and I am afraid that if I accept the managerial role I might loose my technical skills and miss out on opportunities to learn new technologies.
Has anyone ever faced such a dilemma?
Any suggestions would be really helpful.
submitted by denommonkey to ITCareerQuestions [link] [comments]


2019.09.22 10:36 Lowet12 Is my cover letter ok?

My name is [INSERT NAME HERE] and I am soon to enter my final year of study at Staffordshire University. I currently study Sport and Exercise Science and work as a fitness instructor. For the past five years I have voluntarily coached Taekwondo to individuals of all ages and late last year I obtained a second-degree black belt in the sport. I would describe myself as an organised individual who is motivated to learn new things and help others.
Due to my time spent at university I have been able to develop my current skills so that I approach set tasks with critical thinking and a methodical mindset. In addition to this I have also learnt how interpret results and data from research and develop a writing style that clearly portrays my points and findings. As well as study, I also actively help with an independently run clinic within the Sport and Exercise Science department known as Peak Condition. This clinic allows both the general public and athletes to undergo physiological testing to measure their athletic performance. Examples of the some of the tests that I have assisted with and ran being lactate threshold, Vo2 max and body composition analysis. I also have experience with dietary analysis, blood sampling and biomechanical assessments.
As well as currently being at university I also work as a leisure assistant and volunteer to coach taekwondo, with both roles requiring high levels of customer service due to daily interactions with guests and students. Because of this I can easily communicate with and build upon new and pre-existing relationships. I also have experience coaching sport, exercise and nutrition to people of all ages and fitness levels in order to help them reach personalised goal. Additionally, due to having multiple responsibilities at once, such as performing gym inductions and attending arriving guests, I am capable of multi-tasking so that any responsibilities that I do have are met with high satisfaction.
I’m experienced with all Microsoft office based programs, using them on a daily basis for both work and personal use, in addition to having component understanding of the advanced search process utilised by Google search engine. Additionally, I have a drive to successfully complete any task with the full extent of my abilities, which has helped me a confident and self-motivated individual. When working on tasks I am able to work within a team, where I respect the decisions made by those in charge, however, if required I can follow my own initiative and work independently.
I feel like I am suitable for this job as I am always willing to push myself and learn new things and would like the chance to gain experience and an understanding of what it is like to work in the sport industry with dedicated professionals.
submitted by Lowet12 to careerguidance [link] [comments]


2019.09.22 10:26 Lowet12 Is my cover letter ok?

My name is [INSERT NAME HERE] and I am soon to enter my final year of study at Staffordshire University. I currently study Sport and Exercise Science and work as a fitness instructor. For the past five years I have voluntarily coached Taekwondo to individuals of all ages and late last year I obtained a second-degree black belt in the sport. I would describe myself as an organised individual who is motivated to learn new things and help others.
Due to my time spent at university I have been able to develop my current skills so that I approach set tasks with critical thinking and a methodical mindset. In addition to this I have also learnt how interpret results and data from research and develop a writing style that clearly portrays my points and findings. As well as study, I also actively help with an independently run clinic within the Sport and Exercise Science department known as Peak Condition. This clinic allows both the general public and athletes to undergo physiological testing to measure their athletic performance. Examples of the some of the tests that I have assisted with and ran being lactate threshold, Vo2 max and body composition analysis. I also have experience with dietary analysis, blood sampling and biomechanical assessments.
As well as currently being at university I also work as a leisure assistant and volunteer to coach taekwondo, with both roles requiring high levels of customer service due to daily interactions with guests and students. Because of this I can easily communicate with and build upon new and pre-existing relationships. I also have experience coaching sport, exercise and nutrition to people of all ages and fitness levels in order to help them reach personalised goal. Additionally, due to having multiple responsibilities at once, such as performing gym inductions and attending arriving guests, I am capable of multi-tasking so that any responsibilities that I do have are met with high satisfaction.
I’m experienced with all Microsoft office based programs, using them on a daily basis for both work and personal use, in addition to having component understanding of the advanced search process utilised by Google search engine. Additionally, I have a drive to successfully complete any task with the full extent of my abilities, which has helped me a confident and self-motivated individual. When working on tasks I am able to work within a team, where I respect the decisions made by those in charge, however, if required I can follow my own initiative and work independently.
I feel like I am suitable for this job as I am always willing to push myself and learn new things and would like the chance to gain experience and an understanding of what it is like to work in the sport industry with dedicated professionals.
submitted by Lowet12 to GetEmployed [link] [comments]


2019.09.22 10:16 Lowet12 Is cover letter ok?

My name is [INSERT NAME HERE] and I am soon to enter my final year of study at Staffordshire University. I currently study Sport and Exercise Science and work as a fitness instructor. For the past five years I have voluntarily coached Taekwondo to individuals of all ages and late last year I obtained a second-degree black belt in the sport. I would describe myself as an organised individual who is motivated to learn new things and help others.
Due to my time spent at university I have been able to develop my current skills so that I approach set tasks with critical thinking and a methodical mindset. In addition to this I have also learnt how interpret results and data from research and develop a writing style that clearly portrays my points and findings. As well as study, I also actively help with an independently run clinic within the Sport and Exercise Science department known as Peak Condition. This clinic allows both the general public and athletes to undergo physiological testing to measure their athletic performance. Examples of the some of the tests that I have assisted with and ran being lactate threshold, Vo2 max and body composition analysis. I also have experience with dietary analysis, blood sampling and biomechanical assessments.
As well as currently being at university I also work as a leisure assistant and volunteer to coach taekwondo, with both roles requiring high levels of customer service due to daily interactions with guests and students. Because of this I can easily communicate with and build upon new and pre-existing relationships. I also have experience coaching sport, exercise and nutrition to people of all ages and fitness levels in order to help them reach personalised goal. Additionally, due to having multiple responsibilities at once, such as performing gym inductions and attending arriving guests, I am capable of multi-tasking so that any responsibilities that I do have are met with high satisfaction.
I’m experienced with all Microsoft office based programs, using them on a daily basis for both work and personal use, in addition to having component understanding of the advanced search process utilised by Google search engine. Additionally, I have a drive to successfully complete any task with the full extent of my abilities, which has helped me a confident and self-motivated individual. When working on tasks I am able to work within a team, where I respect the decisions made by those in charge, however, if required I can follow my own initiative and work independently.
I feel like I am suitable for this job as I am always willing to push myself and learn new things and would like the chance to gain experience and an understanding of what it is like to work in the sport industry with dedicated professionals.
submitted by Lowet12 to resumes [link] [comments]


Made in Staffordshire Filhotes de American Staffordshire Terrier com Pedigree Paula Furnival, Staffordshire Health and Wellbeing Board at CFOA Data Sharing Conference, July 2015 Where are we going with all this data? Stone Food & Drink Festival 2016 Hidden Heroes versus Covid-19: Paul Timmins Students on placement with Staffordshire Police XCRI-CAP Course Data Project Evaluation at Staffordshire University

Manage your personal data with Staffordshire County ...

  1. Made in Staffordshire
  2. Filhotes de American Staffordshire Terrier com Pedigree
  3. Paula Furnival, Staffordshire Health and Wellbeing Board at CFOA Data Sharing Conference, July 2015
  4. Where are we going with all this data?
  5. Stone Food & Drink Festival 2016
  6. Hidden Heroes versus Covid-19: Paul Timmins
  7. Students on placement with Staffordshire Police
  8. XCRI-CAP Course Data Project Evaluation at Staffordshire University
  9. Staffordshire University - YouTube
  10. Crossdressing in Public - YouTube

The inaugural Staffordshire Business Festival is being organised by Staffordshire Chambers of Commerce to support businesses across the county. Here is our show-reel of what Staffordshire has ... AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER MCGUIRE’S DENNY CRANE x TARA WILSON VON HAUSE MARSHAL ... Data de nascimento: 22/03/2016 - Vacinados, vermifugados e com anti-pulgas carrapatos. Fired Florida data scientist speaks out as COVID-19 cases spike - Duration: 7:20. CBS News 336,501 views. 7:20. Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off ... Staffordshire University’s Business School teamed up with the Stone Food and Drink Festival for the third year running to help run the event and collect data for a report on the events economic ... Forensic Investigation students Sarah and Kirsty had the opportunity to spend two weeks on placement with Staffordshire Police. They investigated if data can be retrieved from digital assistants ... CSIC Research Associate Niamh Gibbons asks ‘where we are going with all this data’ with specific reference to novel research taking place at the Staffordshire Bridge Alliance. Welcome to something different. This is the official Youtube channel for Staffordshire University, a place where people can grow and learn to think for thems... Chief Fire Officers Association's (CFOA) Data Sharing and Implementation Conference, 28 July 2015. Paula Furnival, Programme Director at Staffordshire Health and Wellbeing Board discusses the work ... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. An evaluation video of the Staffordshire University JISC stage 2 Course Data project. Interviews with key stakeholders highlight the lessons learnt when structuring course data and producing the ...